Discusion on Tonicity


Cover Page – APA format. Be sure to include a running head, an informative and descriptive title, author’s name, campus location, date, instructor name, and class section and period. Abstract – You WILL NOT be writing an abstract for this lab report. Even though it is present in the sample lab report, there will not be an abstract for this assignment. You will be summarizing everything in your conclusion paragraph. Introduction – You will want to include information about why these experiments were done. DO NOT COPY AND PASTE INFORMATION FROM THE PREFACE IN THE EXPERIMENT HANDOUT. The sections should also include background information on the principle concepts of the experiment. This includes, what is osmosis, and how is it different from diffusion? What is the difference between hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solutions (their definitions, not their effects)? What is tonicity? In the preface above there is information about where you can find these topics. The introduction must also contain a hypothesis as to what you expect your results to be for the experiments in BOTH sections and why (justify your hypothesis with supportive information). DO NOT GIVE SPOILERS – if it is information you are going to use to justify your interpretations in the discussion, then it does not belong in the introduction. Think about what you will be doing before you complete the experiments and formulate a hypothesis on what you think will happen. For example, what do you think will happen to the cells that comprise the potato when exposed to the different solutions? What about animal cells when exposed to different solutions? Be sure to cite your supporting information. Materials & Methods – Briefly state the materials you used and how you did the experiment. There should be enough detail that someone reading this section can repeat your experiment without difficulty. This section should be written in past tense because you are describing what you did, not telling someone what to do. Do not plagiarize the methods that I have written in the lab handout – use your own words. This should be in paragraph form; do not list material items by bullet points or commas. Results – Briefly present your results (data). For example, simply state your observations of what happened when you conducted the experiments, and also include any measurements you took as well as calculations of measurement changes/percent difference in your potato measurements. You must calculate potato volume and percent changes in order to better determine if your slices changed size. All of this can be done in a combination of text, data tables, and images. You must write in paragraphs. Tables and figures can be used as supplementary material (see sample lab report for proper inclusion of figures and tables). This is NOT the place to offer an explanation for your results. This will be addressed in the discussion. Formula for calculating volume = length x width x height with units of mm3. Formula for calculating percent change = (final volume – initial volume)/initial volume * 100 Discussion – 1. In this section you will offer an explanation for your results. For example, explain the differences that you saw before and after you soaked the potato in the solutions and before and after red blood cells were exposed to the different solutions. You need to address the following: Why did these changes occur? Why were different effects observed on plant cells (potato) versus animal cells (sheep red blood cell)? What would happen to a patient if they were given a solution that was hypertonic or hypotonic relative to their cells? Why is a clear understanding of these concepts important in a clinical or ecological setting? Be sure to cite your supporting information. 2. Lastly, you will want to address whether your data supported or rejected your initial hypotheses. Remember we DO NOT prove anything in science. Explain why it did or did not support your hypotheses. Conclusion – Keep this to a single paragraph that restates the basis for the experiments, what you found, and why these findings are important. This is basically a summary of your entire report. See the sample lab report as a guide. Literature Cited – At least 3 scholarly sources. Sources should always be listed alphabetically by author’s last name. Acceptable scholarly sources include: hardcopy books, eBooks (including your eText), scientific articles, scientific magazines (National Geographic, Scientific American, Popular Science, Discover Magazine, etc.). I will also provide the lab paper that provides the link for the blood experiment, I will also be conducting the potato experiment and i will provide the lab results as well.

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