INTRODUCTION TO LIFE ON EARTH

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BIO 115 – EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE AN INTRODUCTION TO LIFE ON EARTH -how many species on earth 10 – 30 million -estimates as high as 100 million -what % of species in the tropics? 
- 5- 7 major extinctions have occurred in earth since life evolved -classification -know the 3 domains and what they, in general terms, contain -what criteria are used to classify organisms? 
-Carl von Lineè (Linnaeus) –when? – 1700’s – what did he do? 
-know modern classification scheme -3 domains -Kingdom, Phylum (Division), Class, Order, Family, Genus, species -what are Whitaker’s 5 kingdoms? -how do you properly write a scientific name? PROKARYOTES 
-what is the difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes? -they are members of the Bacteria and Archaea domains -what is their average size? -what are their 3 common shapes? 
-what organisms are included in the Domain bacteria? in the Domain Archaea? -What color are the positive and negative bacteria? What structure stains differently -what is a capsule and what is its function? -know what fimbrae, flagella and pili are, be able to identify them , and understand their function -know the structure of ‘chromosomal’ , and plasmid DNA in a prokaryote. What special functions do plasmids play? -what is conjugation? What benefit does it provide to the bacteria? -describe binary fission and its length -know the different types of oxygen use in prokaryotes 
-what is nitrogen fixation? how is it beneficial to life on earth? -the Domain Archaea contains extremeophiles-what are they? -What are the 3 examples of Archaea bacteria given in class? -prokaryotes have a high degree of genetic diversity-what are 2 ways the genes are transferred through the process of evolution? -what is metagenomics and bioprospecting? -what are some of the benefits and dangers found in associated with prokaryotes? VIRUSES/PRIONS/VIROIDS -viruses can have single-stranded or double-stranded RNA or DNA depending on the species -what is the general structure of a virus? -nuclear material surrounded by a protein capsid and then commonly further surrounded by a membrane envelope -many viruses also have glycoproteins in their surface which help the virus bind to the host cell. They are also the target of the immune system (they are how viruses are identified) -how in general, does a virus replicate itself? -what is the difference between the lytic and lysogenic phases of a viral infection? -what is a prion? how does it cause disease? what disease? -what is a viroid? PROTISTS -definition from book (glossary) -most are animal-like, some are plant-like, some are mixotrophic -they are the earliest eukaryotes-how did they evolve? (what is endosymbiosis?- what evidence supports this?) -know the clades and organisms presented in class as being protists (be able to recognize the names as belonging to the protist group) -know some features associated with the starred protists such as diatom anatomy and the white cliffs of Dover, England -I will not ask you what disease/phenomenon the particular protist causes with the exception of: -dinoflagellates-red tide 
-Plasmodium-malaria -Entamoebas-amoebic dysentery -be able to match the algae name with the color
 -what is algin and carrageenan? What are they used for? FUNGI -they are heterotrophic, nonphotosynthetic, saprophages -what are exoenzymes? and describe their function -fungi are composed of hyphae covered by chitin -ecto vs endomycorrhiza – what is it? How do plants and the fungi benefit from their mutual association? -know the generic life cycle as it applies to fungi including plasmogamy and karyogamy -know the 5 Fungi groups and the features of each -what are the beneficial and harmful aspects of fungi? -lichens -symbiotic relationship between algae and fungi (usually ascomycetes) -how does each participant benefit from the mutualistic relationship? -what about lichens makes them good pioneering organisms?

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