Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Rebekah Heup


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English 102

Annotated Bibliography

Patten, Scott B. “Vaping and mental health.” Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 30.1 (2021): 3.

In this study, Scott Patten, a psychologist, talks about the mental health effects that vaping has on the youth and young adults in Canada. There is no concrete information about mental health and vaping, but a similar patten is present in the use of combustible cigarettes. Even though this area of study is neglected, it still presents some useful information because of the similarities between the two types of nicotine consumption. A hypothesis is given that has a strong backing: that nicotine worsens mental illness symptoms, instead of helping with such illnesses, despite the type of consumption. There is other information about what exactly can be worsened, and why that is, plus some other tidbits of facts. Patten is a child psychiatrist, which is not particularly the right area I am looking for, but the source still proves useful for my research.

Why People Start USING Tobacco, and Why It’s Hard to Stop.

This article entails the specifics of why people start smoking tobacco products, and why they continue to do so. It also describes the mental and physical effects of nicotine consumption, plus some statistics of quitting. There is also information about what happens when smokers try to quit, and what happens when you do finally stop using nicotine. I can use this in my essay because it has good facts about the aspects of addiction and the mental impact nicotine addiction is. I would like to have a good section of my essay to be about the mental impact nicotine consumption has on smokers and non-smokers. It even compares how addictive nicotine is to other drugs, which is interesting because it found that nicotine is one of the hardest to quit, with only an 8% quit rate.


  Chan, Gary, et al. “Predicting Vaping Uptake, Vaping Frequency and Ongoing Vaping Among Daily Smokers Using Longitudinal Data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Surveys.” Addiction (Abingdon, England), vol. 114, no. S1, Wiley Subscription Services, Inc, 2019, pp. 61–70, doi:10.1111/add.14537.

A study was conducted on over 6,000 smokers and vapers were surveyed over a span of 8 years, which is the best study I have found. It predicts the way that vaping will evolve mostly by examining the patterns of cigarette smoking over the years. The study is very well done, it is thorough and goes into detail of the statistics it entails. Mental health is also mentioned briefly, but only touching on depression. Most of the study is about people who intend on quitting, and where vaping is in the middle of that. The questions asked in this study are direct, also allowing short answers for a more personalized answer. This aspect, to me, is great because not everyone can answer a question with multiple choice. I can use this source because it has great information and good qualities.

Pogun, Sakire, and Ayse Rodopman Arman. “Understanding nicotine addiction and the health effects of nicotine use.” Supporting Tobacco Cessation (ERS Monograph). Sheffield, European Respiratory Society (2021): 18-32.

The third chapter of this book is about using e-cigarettes. The authors stance here is that vaping does not help smoking cessation, which is the only scholarly reference I have been able to find. The information in this book includes how exactly vaping effects the body and mind. This is one of the most-in depth resources I have found, even if it does go against my stance on vaping. This is still a great information source despite that fact. This one goes into detail about how nicotine becomes an addiction, the social ideas on nicotine and how and why people start in the first place, similar to another source above.

Henry, Travis S., Jeffrey P. Kanne, and Seth J. Kligerman. “Imaging of vaping-associated lung disease.” New England Journal of Medicine 381.15 (2019): 1486-1487.

This article, written by doctors, is about the specific harms that vaping does to the lungs. Images are used as a visual aid, and descriptions of the effects it has on these lungs. There is a study involving 34 people and all exhibited the same symptoms after prolonged vaping of nicotine products. Despite the small selection of participants, it has good evidence of the physical damage it does to the lungs for some users.


CBSThisMorning. “What the Science Says about the Safety of e-Cigarettes.” YouTube, YouTube, 20 Sept. 2019,

CBS news interviews two scientists, whose views on e-cigarettes are on opposite sides of the spectrum. One says that it is 95% safer than cigarettes, and another says that that are “95% harmful” Professor David Abrams and his colleagues conducted their own experiment, by comparing the visuals of cigarettes and vapes using cotton balls in an airtight container. The cotton exposed to cigarettes had brown tar all on them, while the vapor had nothing, confirming the idea that cigarettes are worse than vaping. However, Professor Mark Olfert conducted an 8-month long experiment with rats by exposing them to electronic cigarette vapor, watching the effects it has on the heart. He found that prolonged vaping can cause stiffened arteries.

BBC. “E-Cigarettes: Miracle or Menace? – Horizon: E-Cigarettes – BBC Two.” YouTube, YouTube, 27 May 2016,

Dr, Lynn Dawkins does a small experiment on a man who has never smoked before, making him vape for one month to examine the effects that it has on his cognitive ability. Surprisingly, it had a positive and a negative reaction to his cognitive ability. However, his reaction time was slower than it was before using the electronic cigarette. In this video, Dr. Dawkins finds that in regular cigarettes, the other chemicals mixed in the tobacco may contribute to it being more addictive than electronic cigarettes. While this source does not favor either one, it does lean towards supporting vaping.

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