The study of atoms dates back to the 5th century BC by the Greek philosophers Leucippus and Democritus. Even the ancient Indian philosopher, Acharya Kanad was of the view that matter is indestructible and is made of very small particles called parmanu or anu. In the 19th century, with the discovery of electrons, protons, and neutrons, it became clear that atom is no longer indivisible. The first structure of the atom was proposed by J.J. Thomson which was known as plum pudding or watermelon model in which the electrons were distributed throughout the positively charged atom. Rutherfordâ€™s discovery of the nucleus and the -particle scattering experiment led him to propose that the positively charged particles were concentrated at the center of the atom called the nucleus and the negatively charged particles were moving around the nucleus in a continuous path. Later, Niels Bohr proposed that the electrons moved in fixed paths called orbits around the nucleus. The neutron particles were discovered by James Chadwick and were found to be neutral lying within the nucleus of the atom. Thus, an atom consists of a nucleus with protons and neutrons. These are together called nucleons. The nucleus is surrounded by the negatively charged electrons.
Bohrâ€™s model was a one-dimensional system that used one quantum number to show the distribution of electrons. De Broglieâ€™s theory on wave-particle characteristics of matter led SchrÃ¶dinger to assume electron as a wave. The region where the electrons reside in space at a given time is called an orbital. SchrÃ¶dingerâ€™s model requires three quantum numbers that tell the probability of finding an electron in a certain region at a given time. The three quantum numbers are, the principal quantum number (n) which describes the size of an orbital, the azimuthal quantum number (l) which describes the shape of an orbital, and magnetic quantum number (ml) which describes the orientation of an orbital in space. The orbitals may be spherical, dumbbell , or clover-leaf shaped.
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