Timeline of yellow bone marrow
Prior to birth, the development of bone marrow occurs in clavicle by the end of the fetal development. The bone marrow becomes active approximately about three weeks later. In the liver as the critical organ for hematopoiesis, the bone marrow takes over at around 32 to 36 weeks period of gestation. Till this time, the bone marrow remains red until a child reaches seven years. After that, as the body ages, the red bone marrow in our body is eventually replaced by the yellow fat tissue. In adults, the presence of bone marrow is approximately 5.7 lbs and at least half of which is red. In adults, the hips, vertebrae, sternum (breast bone), skull, ribs, epiphyseal, and metaphyseal of the long bones have a very high concentration of red bone marrow. Other than this, all the spongy, cancellous, central cavities of the long bones are completely filled with yellow bone marrow.
Features of yellow bone marrow
As compared to the red bone marrow, which is rich in white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelet, the yellow bone marrow functions to store fat cells (Adipocytes). In a situation of an emergency such as if there is an excessive blood loss, the yellow bone marrow can be transformed into the red bone marrow to facilitate the blood cell production. Additionally, the fats stored in the adipocytes can also be utilized as the energy reserve for the body in case of extreme starvation or hunger. Furthermore, yellow bone marrow can also be converted to the bone and cartilage as required.
The red bone marrow is known for its name because of the presence of hemoglobin, while the yellow bone marrow has got its name because of the distinct presence of carotenoid in the fat droplets of the tissue. The yellow bone marrow contains inactive cells.
In adults, the red bone marrow occurs in the sternum, pelvic bones, vertebrae, scapulae, cranium, ribs, and proximal epiphyseal ends of long bones. In very extreme conditions where chronic hypoxia occurs, yellow bone marrow can be transformed to the red bone marrow to enhance the production of blood cells in the blood circulation. The bone marrow tissue, which is not involved in the process of hematopoiesis, is known as the stroma. The cells in stroma provide a type of environment that aids the differentiation and functioning of hematopoietic cells. The cells found in bone marrow include macrophages, fibroblasts, adipocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and endothelial cells.
The yellow bone marrow architecture can be distorted by multiple conditions, for example, tuberculosis, myeloma, leukemia, aplastic anemia, etc. Apart from diseases, a therapeutic approach, for example, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, can also modulate the process of cell division in the bone marrow. This results in a suppressed and altered immune system. To ease the disease diagnosis, which may involve the bone marrow, then its aspiration can be performed by a hollow needle in order to obtain a sample under general or local anesthesia.
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