Anatomy & Physiology The Unity of Form

Anatomy & Physiology The Unity of Form and Function 8th Edition by Saladin Test Bank

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Chapter 02 The Chemistry of Life Answer Key

True / False Questions

1.Minerals are organic elements extracted from the soil by plants.

FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: O01.01e List the important dietary minerals and describe the major uses of each mineral in the body.
HAPS Topic: Module O01 Nutrition.
Learning Outcome: 02.01c State the functions of minerals in the body.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Atoms and molecules

2.Molecules composed of two or more atoms are called compounds.

FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C01.03 Compare and contrast the terms atoms, molecules, elements, and compounds.
HAPS Topic: Module C01 Atoms and molecules.
Learning Outcome: 02.01b Distinguish between elements and compounds.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Atoms and molecules

3.Hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium are three isotopes of hydrogen.

TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C01.01c Explain how ions and isotopes are produced by changing the relative number of specific subatomic particles with respect to the structure of an atom.
HAPS Topic: Module C01 Atoms and molecules.
Learning Outcome: 02.01d Explain the basis for radioactivity and the types and hazards of ionizing radiation.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Atoms and molecules

4.Potassium, sodium, and chlorine are trace elements.

FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C01.03 Compare and contrast the terms atoms, molecules, elements, and compounds.
HAPS Topic: Module C01 Atoms and molecules.
Learning Outcome: 02.01b Distinguish between elements and compounds.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Atoms and molecules

5.Ionic bonds break apart in water more easily than covalent bonds do.

TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C02.01a List each type of bond in order by relative strength with respect to non-polar covalent, polar covalent, ionic, and hydrogen bonds.
HAPS Topic: Module C02 Chemical bonding.
Learning Outcome: 02.01f Define the types of chemical bonds.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Chemical bonding

6.A solution is a mixture of two or more substances that are physically blended but not chemically combined.

TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C03.02 Distinguish among the terms solution, solute, solvent, colloid suspension, and emulsion.
HAPS Topic: Module C03 Inorganic compounds and solutions.
Learning Outcome: 02.02c Show how three kinds of mixtures differ from each other.
Section: 02.02
Topic: Inorganic compounds and solutions

7.The pH of blood plasma is approximately 7.4, which is slightly acidic.

FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C03.05 State acidic, neutral, and alkaline pH values.
HAPS Topic: Module C03 Inorganic compounds and solutions.
Learning Outcome: 02.02d Define acid and base and interpret the pH scale.
Section: 02.02
Topic: Inorganic compounds and solutions

8.The high heat capacity of water makes it a very ineffective coolant.

FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C03.01 Discuss the physiologically important properties of water.
HAPS Topic: Module C03 Inorganic compounds and solutions.
Learning Outcome: 02.02b Describe the biologically important properties of water.
Section: 02.02
Topic: Inorganic compounds and solutions

9.In an exchange reaction, covalent bonds are broken and new covalent bonds are formed.

TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.03 Define and give examples of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis reactions.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.03c List and define the fundamental types of chemical reactions.
Section: 02.03
Topic: Chemical bonding

10.Chemical reactions in which larger molecules are broken down into smaller ones are called catabolic reactions.

TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: O02.01 Define metabolism, anabolism and catabolism.
HAPS Topic: Module O02 Introduction to metabolism.
Learning Outcome: 02.03e Define metabolism and its two subdivisions.
Section: 02.03
Topic: Atoms and molecules

11.The opposite of a dehydration synthesis reaction is a hydrolysis reaction.

TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.03 Define and give examples of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis reactions.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.03c List and define the fundamental types of chemical reactions.
Section: 02.03
Topic: Atoms and molecules

12.Unsaturated fatty acids have as much hydrogen as they can carry.

FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.04b Compare and contrast general molecular structure of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04e Discuss the types and functions of lipids.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Organic compounds

13.A dipeptide is a molecule with two peptide bonds.

FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.04a Identify the monomers and polymers of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04f Discuss protein structure and function.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Organic compounds

14.All amino acids have both a carboxyl group and an amino group attached to a central carbon.

TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.04b Compare and contrast general molecular structure of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04f Discuss protein structure and function.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Organic compounds

15.ATP is the body’s most important form of long-term energy storage.

FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C05.01 Describe the generalized reversible reaction for release of energy from ATP and explain the role of ATP in the cell.
HAPS Topic: Module C05 Energy transfer using ATP.
Learning Outcome: 02.04h Describe the structure, production, and function of ATP.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Energy transfer using ATP

Multiple Choice Questions

16.The most abundant element in the human body, by weight, is __________.

A.nitrogen

B.hydrogen

C.carbon

D.oxygen

E.calcium

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C01.03 Compare and contrast the terms atoms, molecules, elements, and compounds.
HAPS Topic: Module C01 Atoms and molecules.
Learning Outcome: 02.01a Identify the elements of the body from their symbols.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Atoms and molecules

17.Sodium has an atomic number of 11 and an atomic mass of 23. Sodium has __________.

A.12 neutrons and 11 protons

B.12 protons and 11 neutrons

C.12 electrons and 11 neutrons

D.12 protons and 11 electrons

E.12 electrons and 11 protons

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C01.01d Distinguish among the terms atomic number, mass number and atomic weight with respect to the structure of an atom.
HAPS Topic: Module C01 Atoms and molecules.
Learning Outcome: 02.01a Identify the elements of the body from their symbols.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Atoms and molecules

18.The chemical properties of an atom are determined by its __________.

A.protons

B.electrons

C.neutrons

D.protons and neutrons

E.particles

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C01.01b Relate the number of electrons in an electron shell to an atoms chemical stability and its ability to form chemical bonds with respect to the structure of an atom.
HAPS Topic: Module C01 Atoms and molecules.
Learning Outcome: 02.01b Distinguish between elements and compounds.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Atoms and molecules

19.Na (atomic no. 11) reacts with Cl (atomic no. 17) to become stable. In the reaction, Na will ____________, while Cl will ____________.

A.accept one electron; give up one electron

B.give up one proton; accept one proton

C.share one electron with chlorine; share one electron with sodium

D.become an anion; become a cation

E.give up one electron; accept one electron

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C02.01b Explain the mechanism of each type of non-polar covalent, polar covalent, ionic, and hydrogen bonds.
HAPS Topic: Module C02 Chemical bonding.
Learning Outcome: 02.01f Define the types of chemical bonds.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Chemical bonding

20.Oxygen has an atomic number of 8 and an atomic mass of 16. How many valence electrons does it have?

A.2

B.4

C.6

D.8

E.16

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C01.01d Distinguish among the terms atomic number, mass number and atomic weight with respect to the structure of an atom.
HAPS Topic: Module C01 Atoms and molecules.
Learning Outcome: 02.01b Distinguish between elements and compounds.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Atoms and molecules

21.Oxygen has an atomic number of eight. When two oxygen atoms come together, they form a(n) __________ bond.

A.hydrogen

B.nonpolar covalent

C.polar covalent

D.ionic

E.Van der Waals

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C02.01b Explain the mechanism of each type of non-polar covalent, polar covalent, ionic, and hydrogen bonds.
HAPS Topic: Module C02 Chemical bonding.
Learning Outcome: 02.01f Define the types of chemical bonds.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Chemical bonding

22.When table salt, sodium chloride (NaCl), is placed in water __________.

A.Na+ and Cl– form ionic bonds with each other

B.Na+ and Cl– form polar covalent bonds with each other

C.Na+ and Cl– form hydrogen bonds with water

D.Ionic bonds between Na+ and Cl– are broken

E.Na+ and Cl– become separated by their Van der Waals forces

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C02.01b Explain the mechanism of each type of non-polar covalent, polar covalent, ionic, and hydrogen bonds.
HAPS Topic: Module C02 Chemical bonding.
Learning Outcome: 02.01f Define the types of chemical bonds.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Chemical bonding

23.The bonding properties of an atom are determined by its __________.

A.electrons

B.protons

C.positrons

D.neutrons

E.photons

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C01.01b Relate the number of electrons in an electron shell to an atoms chemical stability and its ability to form chemical bonds with respect to the structure of an atom.
HAPS Topic: Module C01 Atoms and molecules.
Learning Outcome: 02.01f Define the types of chemical bonds.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Chemical bonding

24.What type of bond attracts one water molecule to another?

A.An ionic bond

B.A peptide bond

C.A hydrogen bond

D.A covalent bond

E.A hydrolytic bond

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C02.01b Explain the mechanism of each type of non-polar covalent, polar covalent, ionic, and hydrogen bonds.
HAPS Topic: Module C02 Chemical bonding.
Learning Outcome: 02.01f Define the types of chemical bonds.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Chemical bonding

Check All That Apply Questions

25.Which of these is a cation? Check all that apply.

__O2XK+XNa+XCa2+__Cl–

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C01.02 Compare and contrast the terms ions, electrolytes, free radicals, isotopes and radioisotopes.
HAPS Topic: Module C01 Atoms and molecules.
Learning Outcome: 02.01e Distinguish between ions, electrolytes, and free radicals.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Chemical bonding

Multiple Choice Questions

26.__________ account for 98.5% of the body’s weight.

A.Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, sodium, potassium, and chlorine

B.Carbon, oxygen, iron, sodium, potassium, and chlorine

C.Carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, sodium, potassium, and chlorine

D.Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sodium, and potassium

E.Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C01.03 Compare and contrast the terms atoms, molecules, elements, and compounds.
HAPS Topic: Module C01 Atoms and molecules.
Learning Outcome: 02.01a Identify the elements of the body from their symbols.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Atoms and molecules

27.__________ differ from one another in their number of neutrons and atomic mass.

A.Cations

B.Anions

C.Isotopes

D.Electrolytes

E.Free radicals

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C01.02 Compare and contrast the terms ions, electrolytes, free radicals, isotopes and radioisotopes.
HAPS Topic: Module C01 Atoms and molecules.
Learning Outcome: 02.01d Explain the basis for radioactivity and the types and hazards of ionizing radiation.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Atoms and molecules

28.When jumping into water you notice resistance. This resistance is caused by water’s __________.

A.adhesiveness

B.cohesiveness

C.hydrophobic tension

D.hydrophilic tension

E.osmotic equilibrium

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C03.01 Discuss the physiologically important properties of water.
HAPS Topic: Module C03 Inorganic compounds and solutions.
Learning Outcome: 02.02b Describe the biologically important properties of water.
Section: 02.02
Topic: Inorganic compounds and solutions

29.Which of these is hydrophobic?

A.Glucose

B.K+

C.Cl–

D.Water

E.Fat

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C03.01 Discuss the physiologically important properties of water.
HAPS Topic: Module C03 Inorganic compounds and solutions.
Learning Outcome: 02.02b Describe the biologically important properties of water.
Section: 02.02
Topic: Inorganic compounds and solutions

30.Blood contains NaCl, protein, and cells. The NaCl is in a(n) __________, the protein is in a(n) __________, and the cells are in a __________.

A.emulsion; solution; suspension

B.solvent; emulsion; colloid

C.colloid; suspension; solution

D.suspension; colloid; solution

E.solution; colloid; suspension

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C03.02 Distinguish among the terms solution, solute, solvent, colloid suspension, and emulsion.
HAPS Topic: Module C03 Inorganic compounds and solutions.
Learning Outcome: 02.02c Show how three kinds of mixtures differ from each other.
Section: 02.02
Topic: Inorganic compounds and solutions

31.Which of these is the most appropriate to express the number of molecules per volume?

A.Molarity

B.Volume

C.Percentage

D.Weight per volume

E.Milliequivalents per liter

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C03.02 Distinguish among the terms solution, solute, solvent, colloid suspension, and emulsion.
HAPS Topic: Module C03 Inorganic compounds and solutions.
Learning Outcome: 02.02e Discuss some ways in which the concentration of a solution can be expressed, and the kinds of information we can derive from the different units of measure.
Section: 02.02
Topic: Inorganic compounds and solutions

32.A solution with pH 4 has __________ the H+ concentration of a solution with pH 8.

A.½

B.2 times

C.4 times

D.10,000 times

E.1/10,000

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C03.04 Define the terms pH, acid, base, and buffer and give examples of physiological significance.
HAPS Topic: Module C03 Inorganic compounds and solutions.
Learning Outcome: 02.02d Define acid and base and interpret the pH scale.
Section: 02.02
Topic: Inorganic compounds and solutions

33.Which of these has the highest H+ concentration?

A.Lemon juice, pH = 2.3

B.Red wine, pH = 3.2

C.Tomato juice, pH = 4.7

D.Saliva, pH = 6.6

E.Household ammonia, pH = 10.8

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C03.05 State acidic, neutral, and alkaline pH values.
HAPS Topic: Module C03 Inorganic compounds and solutions.
Learning Outcome: 02.02d Define acid and base and interpret the pH scale.
Section: 02.02
Topic: Inorganic compounds and solutions

34.In a workout your muscle cells produce lactate, yet you maintain a constant blood pH because _________.

A.metabolic acids are neutralized in muscle cells before released into the blood

B.metabolic bases are produced at the same rate by muscle cells to neutralize the acids

C.the respiratory system removes excess H+ from the blood before the pH is lowered

D.the body contains chemicals called buffers that resist changes in pH

E.endothelial cells secrete excess H+ to prevent a decrease in pH

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C03.04 Define the terms pH, acid, base, and buffer and give examples of physiological significance.
HAPS Topic: Module C03 Inorganic compounds and solutions.
Learning Outcome: 02.02d Define acid and base and interpret the pH scale.
Section: 02.02
Topic: Inorganic compounds and solutions

35.A solution that resists a change in pH when an acid or base is added to it is a(n) __________.

A.buffer

B.catalyst

C.reducing agent

D.oxidizing agent

E.colloid

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C03.04 Define the terms pH, acid, base, and buffer and give examples of physiological significance.
HAPS Topic: Module C03 Inorganic compounds and solutions.
Learning Outcome: 02.02d Define acid and base and interpret the pH scale.
Section: 02.02
Topic: Inorganic compounds and solutions

36.A chemical reaction that removes electrons from an atom is called a(n) __________ reaction.

A.reduction

B.condensation

C.hydrolysis

D.anabolic

E.oxidation

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: O02.05 Describe the processes of oxidation, reduction, decarboxylation, and phosphorylation.
HAPS Topic: Module O02 Introduction to metabolism.
Learning Outcome: 02.03f Define oxidation and reduction, and relate these to changes in the energy content of a molecule.
Section: 02.03
Topic: Atoms and molecules

37.The most relevant free energy in human physiology is the energy stored in __________.

A.electrolytes ionized in water

B.free radicals with an odd number of electrons

C.radioisotopes

D.the chemical bonds of organic molecules

E.Van der Waals forces

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: O02.01 Define metabolism, anabolism and catabolism.
HAPS Topic: Module O02 Introduction to metabolism.
Learning Outcome: 02.03a Define energy and work, and describe some types of energy.
Section: 02.03
Topic: Atoms and molecules

38.The breakdown of glycogen (an energy-storage compound) is an example of a(n) __________ reaction.

A.exergonic

B.endergonic

C.exchange

D.synthesis

E.equilibrium

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: O02.01 Define metabolism, anabolism and catabolism.
HAPS Topic: Module O02 Introduction to metabolism.
Learning Outcome: 02.03c List and define the fundamental types of chemical reactions.
Section: 02.03
Topic: Atoms and molecules

39.Potential energy stored in bonds is released as __________ energy.

A.electromagnetic

B.electrical

C.chemical

D.heat

E.kinetic

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: O02.01 Define metabolism, anabolism and catabolism.
HAPS Topic: Module O02 Introduction to metabolism.
Learning Outcome: 02.03c List and define the fundamental types of chemical reactions.
Section: 02.03
Topic: Atoms and molecules

40.The breakdown of glucose to yield carbon dioxide, oxygen, and ATP can be described as __________.

A.anabolic and endergonic

B.catabolic and exergonic

C.anabolic and exergonic

D.catabolic and endergonic

E.anabolic and exothermic

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: O02.01 Define metabolism, anabolism and catabolism.
HAPS Topic: Module O02 Introduction to metabolism.
Learning Outcome: 02.03e Define metabolism and its two subdivisions.
Section: 02.03
Topic: Cellular respiration

41.Which one of the following would not increase the rate of a reaction?

A.An increase in reactant concentrations

B.A rise in temperature

C.The presence of a catalyst

D.The presence of an enzyme

E.A decrease in reactant concentrations

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.06 Demonstrate factors that affect enzyme activity, including denaturation, and interpret graphs showing the effects of various factors on the rate of enzyme- catalyzed reactions.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.03d Identify the factors that govern the speed and direction of a reaction.
Section: 02.03
Topic: Atoms and molecules

42.Which of the following terms encompasses all of the other ones?

A.Catabolism

B.Anabolism

C.Metabolism

D.Oxidation reactions

E.Reduction reactions

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: O02.01 Define metabolism, anabolism and catabolism.
HAPS Topic: Module O02 Introduction to metabolism.
Learning Outcome: 02.03e Define metabolism and its two subdivisions.
Section: 02.03
Topic: Atoms and molecules

43.The breakdown of starch by digestive enzymes into glucose molecules is a(n) __________ reaction.

A.synthesis

B.decomposition

C.exchange

D.anabolic

E.reduction

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: O02.01 Define metabolism, anabolism and catabolism.
HAPS Topic: Module O02 Introduction to metabolism.
Learning Outcome: 02.03c List and define the fundamental types of chemical reactions.
Section: 02.03
Topic: Atoms and molecules

44.Which of the following equations depicts an exchange reaction?

A.AB → A + B

B.A + B → AB

C.AB + CD → AC + BD

D.AB → A– + B+

E.A + B → AB → C + D

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.03 Define and give examples of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis reactions.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.03b Understand how chemical reactions are symbolized by chemical equations.
Section: 02.03
Topic: Atoms and molecules

45.A(n) __________ is a group of atoms that determines many of the properties of an organic molecule.

A.carboxyl group

B.functional group

C.hydroxyl group

D.amino group

E.phosphate group

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.04a Identify the monomers and polymers of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04b Identify some common functional groups of organic molecules from their formulae.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Organic compounds

46.Which of the following is not an organic compound?

A.C16H18N3ClS

B.Na2HPO3(H2O)5

C.CH4

D.C3H7O2N

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.01 Define the term organic molecule.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04a Explain why carbon is especially well suited to serve as the structural foundation of many biological molecules.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Organic compounds

47.A __________ reaction breaks a __________ down into its monomers.

A.hydrolysis; polymer

B.dehydration synthesis; molecule

C.dehydration synthesis; polymer

D.polymer; molecule

E.condensation; reactant

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.03 Define and give examples of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis reactions.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04c Discuss the relevance of polymers to biology and explain how they are formed and broken by dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Organic compounds

48.The formula of an amino group is __________; the formula of a carboxyl group is __________.

A.-COOH; -OH

B.-CH3; -NH2

C.-OH; -SH

D.-NH2; -COOH

E.-SH; -H2PO4

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.04a Identify the monomers and polymers of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04b Identify some common functional groups of organic molecules from their formulae.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Organic compounds

49.Table sugar is a disaccharide called __________ and is made up of the monomer(s) __________.

A.maltose; glucose and sucrose

B.sucrose; glucose and fructose

C.lactose; glucose and galactose

D.glycogen; glucose and fructose

E.glucose; galactose and fructose

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.04a Identify the monomers and polymers of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04d Discuss the types and functions of carbohydrates.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Organic compounds

50.Which of the following is a disaccharide?

A.Galactose

B.Lactose

C.Glucose

D.Fructose

E.Amylose

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.04a Identify the monomers and polymers of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04d Discuss the types and functions of carbohydrates.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Organic compounds

51.__________ is a monosaccharide, whereas __________ is a polysaccharide.

A.Fructose; sucrose

B.Galactose; maltose

C.Lactose; glycogen

D.Glucose; starch

E.Cellulose; glucose

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.04c Provide specific examples of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04d Discuss the types and functions of carbohydrates.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Organic compounds

52.In general, __________ have a 2:1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen.

A.enzymes

B.proteins

C.lipids

D.carbohydrates

E.nucleic acids

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.04b Compare and contrast general molecular structure of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04d Discuss the types and functions of carbohydrates.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Organic compounds

53.Proteoglycans are composed of __________.

A.carbohydrates and fats

B.nucleic acids and fats

C.carbohydrates and proteins

D.proteins and fats

E.nucleic acids and proteins

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.04c Provide specific examples of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04d Discuss the types and functions of carbohydrates.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Organic compounds

54.Triglycerides consist of a 3-carbon compound called __________ bound to three __________.

A.pyruvate; fatty acids

B.lactate; glycerols

C.eicosanoid; steroids

D.glycerol; fatty acids

E.sterol; fatty acids

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.04b Compare and contrast general molecular structure of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04e Discuss the types and functions of lipids.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Organic compounds

55.__________ are major components of cell membranes, and are said to be __________.

A.Triglycerides; hydrophobic

B.Steroids; hydrophilic

C.Bile acids; fat-soluble

D.Eicosanoids; water-soluble

E.Phospholipids; amphiphilic

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.04c Provide specific examples of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04e Discuss the types and functions of lipids.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Organic compounds

56.Which of these molecules is hydrophobic?

A.Glucose

B.Cholesterol

C.Amino acid

D.Protein

E.Disaccharide

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.04c Provide specific examples of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04e Discuss the types and functions of lipids.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Organic compounds

57.Proteins perform all of the following functions except __________.

A.catalyze metabolic reactions

B.give structural strength to cells and tissues

C.produce muscular and other forms of movement

D.regulate transport of solutes into and out of cells

E.store hereditary information

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.04e Discuss physiological and structural roles in the human body of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04f Discuss protein structure and function.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Organic compounds

58.A drastic conformational change in a protein in response to extreme heat or pH is called __________.

A.contamination

B.denaturation

C.saturation

D.sedimentation

E.deconformation

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.06 Demonstrate factors that affect enzyme activity, including denaturation, and interpret graphs showing the effects of various factors on the rate of enzyme- catalyzed reactions.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04f Discuss protein structure and function.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Organic compounds

59.Proteins are __________ built from __________ different amino acids.

A.monomers; 10

B.molecules; 10

C.polymers; 20

D.macromolecules; 40

E.peptides:25

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.05 Describe the four levels of protein structure and discuss the importance of protein shape for protein function.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04f Discuss protein structure and function.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Organic compounds

60.The folding and coiling of a protein into a globular shape is the __________ structure of the protein.

A.primary

B.secondary

C.tertiary

D.quaternary

E.denatured

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.05 Describe the four levels of protein structure and discuss the importance of protein shape for protein function.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04f Discuss protein structure and function.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Organic compounds

61.An enzyme is substrate-specific because of the shape of its __________.

A.active site

B.receptor

C.secondary structure

D.terminal amino acid

E.alpha chain

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.05 Describe the four levels of protein structure and discuss the importance of protein shape for protein function.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04g Explain how enzymes function.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Organic compounds

62.__________ is the substrate of __________.

A.Glucose; lactose

B.Lactase; glucose

C.Lactose; lactase

D.Galactose; lactose

E.Sucrase; sucrose

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.06 Demonstrate factors that affect enzyme activity, including denaturation, and interpret graphs showing the effects of various factors on the rate of enzyme- catalyzed reactions.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04g Explain how enzymes function.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Organic compounds

63.All enzymes are __________.

A.cofactors

B.proteins

C.lipids

D.carbohydrates

E.nucleic acids

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.06 Demonstrate factors that affect enzyme activity, including denaturation, and interpret graphs showing the effects of various factors on the rate of enzyme- catalyzed reactions.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04g Explain how enzymes function.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Organic compounds

64.Nucleic acids are __________ of __________.

A.monomers; monosaccharides

B.monomers; ATP

C.polymers; nucleotides

D.polymers; cAMP

E.polymers; DNA

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.04a Identify the monomers and polymers of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04j Identify the principal types of nucleic acids.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA
Topic: Organic compounds

65.ATP__________ endergonic and exergonic reactions.

A.opposes

B.decomposes

C.reduces

D.links

E.dehydrates

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C05.01 Describe the generalized reversible reaction for release of energy from ATP and explain the role of ATP in the cell.
HAPS Topic: Module C05 Energy transfer using ATP.
Learning Outcome: 02.04h Describe the structure, production, and function of ATP.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Energy transfer using ATP
Topic: Organic compounds

66.Minerals are found in all of the following except __________.

A.bones and teeth

B.vitamins

C.thyroid hormone

D.electrolytes

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: O01.01e List the important dietary minerals and describe the major uses of each mineral in the body.
HAPS Topic: Module O01 Nutrition.
Learning Outcome: 02.01c State the functions of minerals in the body.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Atoms and molecules

67.An atom with 12 electrons, 13 neutrons, and 11 protons is a(n) __________.

A.anion

B.cation

C.free radical

D.isotope

E.both an anion and an isotope

F.both an anion and a free radical

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C01.02 Compare and contrast the terms ions, electrolytes, free radicals, isotopes and radioisotopes.
HAPS Topic: Module C01 Atoms and molecules.
Learning Outcome: 02.01e Distinguish between ions, electrolytes, and free radicals.
Section: 02.01
Topic: Atoms and molecules

68.The concentration of a solution may be expressed by all of the following except _________.

A.weight per volume

B.percentage

C.molarity

D.pH

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C03.02 Distinguish among the terms solution, solute, solvent, colloid suspension, and emulsion.
HAPS Topic: Module C03 Inorganic compounds and solutions.
Learning Outcome: 02.02e Discuss some ways in which the concentration of a solution can be expressed, and the kinds of information we can derive from the different units of measure.
Section: 02.02
Topic: Inorganic compounds and solutions

69.The vibration of an ear drum is an example of __________ energy.

A.kinetic

B.potential

C.elastic

D.radiant

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C05.01 Describe the generalized reversible reaction for release of energy from ATP and explain the role of ATP in the cell.
HAPS Topic: Module C05 Energy transfer using ATP.
Learning Outcome: 02.03a Define energy and work, and describe some types of energy.
Section: 02.03
Topic: Atoms and molecules

70.In the following reaction, what is(are) the product(s)?  CO2 + H2O —> H2CO3

A.H2CO3

B.CO2 and H2O

C.CO2 and H2CO3

D.H2O and H2CO3

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.03 Define and give examples of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis reactions.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.03b Understand how chemical reactions are symbolized by chemical equations.
Section: 02.03
Topic: Atoms and molecules

71.Which of the following will increase the rate of a chemical reaction?

A.An increase in reactant concentration

B.An increase in product concentration

C.A decreased temperature

D.Enzyme inhibition

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.06 Demonstrate factors that affect enzyme activity, including denaturation, and interpret graphs showing the effects of various factors on the rate of enzyme- catalyzed reactions.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.03d Identify the factors that govern the speed and direction of a reaction.
Section: 02.03
Topic: Atoms and molecules

72.Carbon is very versatile in forming bonds with other atoms because it has __________ valence electrons.

A.four

B.two

C.eight

D.six

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.01 Define the term organic molecule.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04a Explain why carbon is especially well suited to serve as the structural foundation of many biological molecules.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Chemical bonding
Topic: Organic compounds

73.Amylase is a digestive enzyme that breaks starches down into sugars through __________ reactions.

A.hydrolysis

B.dehydration synthesis

C.anabolic

D.endergonic

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.03 Define and give examples of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis reactions.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04c Discuss the relevance of polymers to biology and explain how they are formed and broken by dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Organic compounds

74.Which of the following is not a nucleotide?

A.RNA

B.GTP

C.ATP

D.cAMP

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: C04.04b Compare and contrast general molecular structure of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.
HAPS Topic: Module C04 Organic compounds.
Learning Outcome: 02.04j Identify the principal types of nucleic acids.
Section: 02.04
Topic: Organic compounds

75.Metabolism is the sum of __________ and __________.

A.inhalation; exhalation

B.growth; differentiation

C.anabolism; catabolism

D.positive; negative feedback

E.responsiveness; movement

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: O02.01 Define metabolism, anabolism and catabolism.
HAPS Topic: Module O02 Introduction to metabolism.
Learning Outcome: 02.03e Define metabolism and its two subdivisions.
Section: 02.03
Topic: Energy transfer using ATP

True / False Questions

76.A molecule that is oxidized gains electrons and energy.

FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
HAPS Objective: O02.05 Describe the processes of oxidation, reduction, decarboxylation, and phosphorylation.
HAPS Topic: Module C02 Chemical bonding.
Learning Outcome: 02.03f Define oxidation and reduction, and relate these to changes in the energy content of a molecule.
Section: 02.03
Topic: Atoms and molecules

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