Awareness of risk factors for HBV infection

Globally, incarcerated populations encounter a host of public health care issues; two such issues—HAV and HBV diseases—are vaccine preventable. In addition, viral hepatitis disproportionately impacts the homeless because of increased risky sexual behaviors and drug use (Stein, Andersen, Robertson, & Gelberg, 2012), along with substandard living conditions (Hennessey, Bangsberg, Weinbaum, & Hahn, 2009).

Purpose—Despite knowledge of awareness of risk factors for HBV infection, intervention programs designed to enhance completion of the three-series Twinrix HAV/HBV vaccine and identification of prognostic factors for vaccine completion have not been widely studied. The purpose of this study was to first assess whether seronegative parolees previously randomized to any one of three intervention conditions were more likely to complete the vaccine series as well as to identify the predictors of HAV/HBV vaccine completion.

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Literature Review— Concepts

Despite the availability of the HBV vaccine, there has been a low rate of completion for the three-dose core of the accelerated vaccine series (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). Among incarcerated populations, HBV vaccine coverage is low; in a study among jail inmates, 19% had past HBV infection, and 12% completed the HBV vaccination series (Hennessey, Kim, et al., 2009). Although HBV is well accepted behind bars—because of the lack of funding and focus on prevention as a core in the prison system—few inmates complete the series (Weinbaum, Sabin, & Santibanez, 2005). In addition, prevention may not be priority.Preventable

disease vaccinations Homelessness

Authors contend that, although the HBV vaccine is cost-effective, it is underutilized among high-risk (Rich et al., 2003) and incarcerated populations (Hunt & Saab, 2009). For homeless men on parole, vaccination completion may be affected by level of custody; generally, the higher the level of custody, the higher the risk an inmate poses.

Conceptual Framework

The comprehensive health seeking and coping paradigm (Nyamathi, 1989), adapted from a coping model (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984), and the health seeking and coping paradigm (Schlotfeldt, 1981) guided this study and the variables selected (see Fig. 1.1). The comprehensive health seeking and coping paradigm has been successfully applied by our team to improve our understanding of HIV and HBV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) protective behaviors and health outcomes among homeless adults (Nyamathi, Liu, et al., 2009)—many of whom had been incarcerated (Nyamathi et al., 2012).

Methods/Design The study used a randomized clinical trial. Specific Aims and Hypotheses

In this model, a number of factors are thought to relate to the outcome variable, completion of the HAV/HBV vaccine series. These factors include sociodemographic factors, situational factors, personal factors, social factors, and health seeking and coping responses.

Subject Recruitment and Accrual

An RCT where 600 male parolees participating in an RDT program were randomized into one of three intervention conditions aimed at assessing program efficacy on reducing drug use and recidivism at 6 and 12 months, as well as vaccine completion in eligible subjects.

There were four inclusion criteria for recruitment purposes in assessing program efficacy on reducing drug use and recidivism: (1) history of drug use prior to their latest incarceration, (2) between ages of 18 and 60, (3) residing in the participating RDT program, and (4) designated as homeless as noted on the prison or jail discharge form.

Procedure The study was approved by the University of California, Los Angeles Institutional Review Board and registered with clinical Trials.gov. Building upon previous studies, we developed varying levels of peer-coached and nurse-led programs designed to improve HAV/HBV vaccine receptivity at 12-month follow-up among homeless offenders recently released to parole. See Appendix A for details in the “Interventions” section.

Intervention Fidelity

Several strategies for treatment fidelity included study design, interventionist’s training, and standardization of interventions. See the Interventions section in Appendix A.

HBA, Hepatitis A virus; HBV, hepatitis B virus; RCT, randomized clinical trial.

  H I G H L I G H T Start an IPE Journal Club with students from other health professions programs on your campus. Select a research study to read, understand, and critically appraise together. It is always helpful to collaborate on deciding whether the findings are applicable to clinical practice.

29http://Trials.gov

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