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# Benefits of water hydration during activities

At low temperature the reaction between water and beryllium does not occur as beryllium has a strong resistant layer of oxide on its surface. This resistant layer actually makes it unreactive towards the water. For this reason, beryllium totally remain unreactive at low temperature. With this property, beryllium is different from the other elements in the IIA group. Beryllium consists of a thin oxide layer on its surface which do not allow the metal in its elemental state to react with water. But other elements of the same group react with water at low temperatures to form metal hydroxides {\rm{M(OH}}{{\rm{)}}_{\rm{2}}}M(OH)
2
â€‹
and hydrogen gas. The reaction can occur between the elements at low temperatures or at room temperature. The general chemical equation for reaction of IIA metals with water at low temperatures can be written as given. {\rm{M}}{\kern 1pt} {\rm{ + }}{\kern 1pt} {\rm{2}}{{\rm{H}}_{\rm{2}}}{\rm{O}}{\kern 1pt} \to {\rm{M}}{\left( {{\rm{OH}}} \right)_{\rm{2}}}{\kern 1pt} {\rm{ + }}{\kern 1pt} {{\rm{H}}_{\rm{2}}} \uparrowM+2H
2
â€‹
Oâ†’M(OH)
2
â€‹
+H
2
â€‹
â†‘. Where, M is used to generalised notation of metals.

Reaction of Beryllium with Water at High Temperature:

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Just from $9/Page The reaction between beryllium and water is not possible at lower temperatures or at room temperature, but it is possible in higher temperature. The desired temperature should be {\rm{1000^\circ C}}1000 âˆ˜ C or above of it. This high amount of temperature actually helps to break up the oxide layer on the surface of beryllium. After breaking the oxide layer, it helps the beryllium metal to be exposed to its own surface. Then the protection of the oxide layer fails and then it can easily make reaction with water. The reaction will be occurred as follows: {\rm{Be}}\left( {\rm{s}} \right) + {{\rm{H}}_{\rm{2}}}{\rm{O}}\left( {\rm{g}} \right) \to {\rm{BeO}}\left( {\rm{s}} \right) + {{\rm{H}}_{\rm{2}}}\left( {\rm{g}} \right)Be(s)+H 2 â€‹ O(g)â†’BeO(s)+H 2 â€‹ (g) At high temperature beryllium reacts with steam and produces white beryllium oxide, {\rm{BeO}}BeO and hydrogen gas \left( {{{\rm{H}}_{\rm{2}}}} \right)(H 2 â€‹ ). Whether the reaction between water occurs in cool conditions or at high temperatures, hydrogen gas is formed as one of the products. So, beryllium also liberates hydrogen from the water molecules when it reacts with steam at high temperatures. The ideal temperature for the reaction of beryllium with steam (water vapour) should be more than {\rm{700 – 75}}{{\rm{0}}^{\rm{o}}}{\rm{C}}700âˆ’750 o C. Some of the references and books state that beryllium does not react with water or even steam upon increasing the temperature of the reaction mixture or even heating the metal to red hot. But recent studies have proven that beryllium can actually react with water vapour (steam) at temperatures greater than {750^{\rm{o}}}{\rm{C}}750 o C. At this temperature the protective oxide layer on the beryllium gets break up exposing the metal atoms to be available for the reaction. For the Following Reasons also Reaction of Beryllium and Water does not Occur: Be or beryllium is the smallest element of the group 2. Also, its ionization energy is very high. For these two reasons, the oxidation potential is very low for Beryllium to donate electron to the hydrogen of the water molecule. Thatâ€™s why for beryllium it is not so easy to make reaction with water. The thermodynamics of the reaction can give satisfactory explanation for the underactivity or very slow reactivity of Be with water at controlled experimental conditions. The enthalpy changes of the reaction of beryllium to give beryllium oxide is – 369{\rm{ KJ}}{\kern 1pt} {\rm{mo}}{{\rm{l}}^{ – 1}}âˆ’369KJmol âˆ’1 and magnesium with water to give magnesium oxide is – {\rm{360 KJ}}{\kern 1pt} {\rm{mo}}{{\rm{l}}^{ – 1}}âˆ’360KJmol âˆ’1 but their reactivities are different. Magnesium reacts faster whereas beryllium reacts very slowly. Also, if we observe the trend in second ionisation energy values the IIA group elements follow, beryllium has high value of – {\rm{3000 KJ}}{\kern 1pt} {\rm{mo}}{{\rm{l}}^{ – 1}}âˆ’3000KJmol âˆ’1 . But for other elements in the group, the IE values gradually decrease. The high ionisation enthalpy doesnâ€™t allow beryllium to form ions thus making it slowly reactive. ## Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent? Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. 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