The partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood is maintained by the regulation of respiration. Regulation is mediated by two pathways 1) neural control 2) chemoreceptor control The respiratory control system consists of a
Sensor that senses the change in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide, oxygen in the blood, and transmits the information to the respiratory control center in the brain
Process the information and send impulses to the effector organ
Based on the information transmitted the effector organ, that is, respiratory muscle functions
The involuntary respiration mechanism is under the control of the respiratory center that is present on the brainstem and the movement of respiratory muscles (diaphragm) is regulated by the respiratory center.
The key respiratory control center is the medulla oblongata. It sends impulses to the respiratory muscle and the breathing process is regulated. It consists of two groups of neurons namely the ventral respiratory group which is responsible for the diaphragm (expiratory muscle) movement during expiration and the dorsal respiratory group which triggers the inspiratory movement of the diaphragm (inspiratory muscle). Coughing, sneezing, swallowing and vomiting are under the influence of medulla oblongata.
The pons lies below the medulla and it regulates the rate of respiration. There are two neuron center namely,
The apneustic center transfers impulse for inspiration of deep and long breaths. It regulates the intensity of breathing and the signal from this center is inhibited by the stretch receptors found in the lung muscles or by an impulse from the pnuemotaxic center. It upregulates tidal volume.
The pnuemotaxic center inhibits the inspiration thereby controlling the respiratory rate. It restricts the impulse generated from the apneustic center. It downregulates tidal volume. Thus both the pnuemotaxic and apneustic centers help in the regulation of respiratory rate.
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