17th Century Art in Europe
St. Ignatius of Loyola – Society of Jesus
Art as propaganda
Art as reinvigorator of belief/practice
St. Teresa of Avila in Ecstasy, Cornaro Chapel, Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome. 1645-1652. Marble, 11’ 6”.
What IS Baroque?
Intensity of emotion to draw in viewer
Using gestures and expressions to tell a story
Dark and light contrasts (chiaroscuro)
Bringing the everyday into religious scenes
Baroque in Europe
France: resurgence of classicism
Netherlands: portraiture, still life, landscape, and genre
St. Peter’s Basilica & Piazza, Vatican, Rome
Pope Paul V Borghese (pontificate 1605-1621)
Longitudinal nave and new facade
Carlo Maderno, Façade of St. Peter’s, 1607-1626
Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680)
Baldacchino, St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican, Rome. 1624-1633. Gilt bronze, 100’.
Cathedra Petri, 1657-1666, gilt bronze, marble, stucco, and glass.
David. 1623, Marble, 5’ 7”, Galleria Borghese, Rome.
Francesco Borromini, Façade of the Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, 1638-67.
Dome and Plan, San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane
Bacchus, 1595-1596. Oil on canvas, 37” x 33.5”, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.
Caravaggio, The Calling of St. Matthew, Contarelli Chapel, church of San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome. 1599-1600. Oil on canvas, 10’ 7.5” x 11’ 2”.
The Conversion of St. Paul, Cerasi Chapel, Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome, c. 1601. Oil on canvas, 7’ 6” x 5’ 8”
Judith Beheading Holofernes, c. 1619-20. Oil on canvas, 6’ 63/8” x 5’ 4”, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.
Giovanni Battista Gaulli
Worked for Bernini, who worshiped at Il Gesu
Illusionistic Baroque ceiling
Giovanni Battista Gaulli, The Triumph of the Name of Jesus and Fall of the Damned, Vault of the church of Il Gesù, Rome, 1672-1685. Fresco with stucco figures
Di sotto in sù
Juan Sánchez Cotán, Still Life with Quince, Cabbage, Melon, and Cucumber, c. 1602. Oil on canvas, 27 1/8” x 33 ¼”. San Diego Museum of Art.
Jusepe de Ribera, Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew, 1634. Oil on canvas, 1.05 x 1.14 m.
Diego Velázquez, Water Carrier of Seville, c. 1619. Oil on canvas, 41 ½” x 31 ½” . Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
Diego Velázquez, The Surrender at Breda (The Lances), 1634-1635. Oil on canvas, 10’7/8” x 12’ ½”. Museo del Prado, Madrid.
Diego Velázquez, Las Meninas, 1656. Oil on canvas, 10’ 5” x 9’ ½”. Museo del Prado, Madrid.
Flanders: Peter Paul Rubens
Self-Portrait with Isabella Brandt, 1609-1610. Oil on canvas, 5’ 9” x 4’ 5”. Alte Pinakothek, Munich.
Rubens’s House; engraving from 1684.
Peter Paul Rubens
The Raising of the Cross, 1610-1611. Oil on panel, center panel 15’ 1 7/8”x 11’ ½”. Each wing 15’ 1 7/8” x 4’ 11”. Now in Cathedral of Our Lady, Antwerp.
Genre Painting: Group Portrait
Frans Hals, Officers of the Haarlem Militia Company of St. Adrian, c. 1627. Oil on canvas, 6’ x 8’ 8”. Frans Halsmuseum, Haarlem.
Genre Painting: Portraits
Frans Hals, Malle Babbe, c. 1630-1633. Oil on canvas, 30 7/8” x 26”. Staatliche Museen, Berlin.
Genre Painting: Self-Portrait
Judith Leyster, Self-Portrait, 1635. Oil on canvas, 29 3/8” x 25 5/8”. National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.
The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, 1632. Oil on canvas, 5’ 3 ¾” x 7’ 1 ¼”. Mauritshuis, The Hague.
Rembrandt van Rijn, Three Crosses (First State and Fourth State), 1653. Drypoint, 38.5 x 45 cm.
Rembrandt van Rijn: Self-Portrait (1658)
Oil on canvas, 52 5/8” x 40 7/8”. The Frick Collection, New York.
Johannes Vermeer, Woman Holding a Balance, c. 1664. Oil on canvas, 39.7 x 35.5 cm.
Jacob van Ruisdael, View of Haarlem from the Dunes at Overveen, c. 1670. Oil on canvas, 22” x 24 ¼”. Royal Picture Gallery, Mauritshuis, The Hague.
Pieter Claesz, Still Life with Tazza, 1636. Oil on panel, 44 x 61 cm.
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