Century Art in Europe Assessment

17th Century Art in Europe

 

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Counter-Reformation

 

St. Ignatius of Loyola – Society of Jesus

Counter-Reformation

Art as propaganda

Art as reinvigorator of belief/practice

Spiritual ecstasy

 

 

 

 

 

Sculpture: Bernini

St. Teresa of Avila in Ecstasy, Cornaro Chapel, Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome. 1645-1652. Marble, 11’ 6”.

 

 

What IS Baroque?

STYLE featuring:

Drama/theatricality

Intensity of emotion to draw in viewer

Extreme skill

Naturalism

Using gestures and expressions to tell a story

Dark and light contrasts (chiaroscuro)

Off-balance

Bringing the everyday into religious scenes

Baroque in Europe

France: resurgence of classicism

Monarchy

Counter-Reformation

Netherlands: portraiture, still life, landscape, and genre

 

 

St. Peter’s Basilica & Piazza, Vatican, Rome

Pope Paul V Borghese (pontificate 1605-1621)

Longitudinal nave and new facade

Carlo Maderno, Façade of St. Peter’s, 1607-1626

 

Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680)

Baldacchino, St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican, Rome. 1624-1633. Gilt bronze, 100’.

Cathedra Petri, 1657-1666, gilt bronze, marble, stucco, and glass.

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iSH2H0xZPOw

 

Bernini

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1JNjZTx_OsQ

David. 1623, Marble, 5’ 7”, Galleria Borghese, Rome.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Francesco Borromini, Façade of the Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, 1638-67.

Dome and Plan, San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane

 

 

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ixo_SLkblB4

Caravaggio

Bacchus, 1595-1596. Oil on canvas, 37” x 33.5”, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.

https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/the-adolescent-bacchus/dAEBrgRq5AvsQA

 

 

Caravaggio

Caravaggio, The Calling of St. Matthew, Contarelli Chapel, church of San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome. 1599-1600. Oil on canvas, 10’ 7.5” x 11’ 2”.

Tenebrism

Caravaggio

The Conversion of St. Paul, Cerasi Chapel, Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome, c. 1601. Oil on canvas, 7’ 6” x 5’ 8”

Artemisia Gentileschi

Judith Beheading Holofernes, c. 1619-20. Oil on canvas, 6’ 63/8” x 5’ 4”, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.

Giovanni Battista Gaulli

Worked for Bernini, who worshiped at Il Gesu

Illusionistic Baroque ceiling

 

Giovanni Battista Gaulli, The Triumph of the Name of Jesus and Fall of the Damned, Vault of the church of Il Gesù, Rome, 1672-1685. Fresco with stucco figures

 

Quadratura

Di sotto in sù

Spain

Juan Sánchez Cotán, Still Life with Quince, Cabbage, Melon, and Cucumber, c. 1602. Oil on canvas, 27 1/8” x 33 ¼”. San Diego Museum of Art.

Jusepe de Ribera, Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew, 1634. Oil on canvas, 1.05 x 1.14 m.

 

Diego Velázquez, Water Carrier of Seville, c. 1619. Oil on canvas, 41 ½” x 31 ½” . Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

 

Diego Velázquez, The Surrender at Breda (The Lances), 1634-1635. Oil on canvas, 10’7/8” x 12’ ½”. Museo del Prado, Madrid.

 

Diego Velázquez, Las Meninas, 1656. Oil on canvas, 10’ 5” x 9’ ½”. Museo del Prado, Madrid.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flanders: Peter Paul Rubens

Self-Portrait with Isabella Brandt, 1609-1610. Oil on canvas, 5’ 9” x 4’ 5”. Alte Pinakothek, Munich.

Rubens’s House; engraving from 1684.

 

Peter Paul Rubens

The Raising of the Cross, 1610-1611. Oil on panel, center panel 15’ 1 7/8”x 11’ ½”. Each wing 15’ 1 7/8” x 4’ 11”. Now in Cathedral of Our Lady, Antwerp.

Genre Painting: Group Portrait

Frans Hals, Officers of the Haarlem Militia Company of St. Adrian, c. 1627. Oil on canvas, 6’ x 8’ 8”. Frans Halsmuseum, Haarlem.

 

 

Genre Painting: Portraits

Frans Hals, Malle Babbe, c. 1630-1633. Oil on canvas, 30 7/8” x 26”. Staatliche Museen, Berlin.

Genre Painting: Self-Portrait

Judith Leyster, Self-Portrait, 1635. Oil on canvas, 29 3/8” x 25 5/8”. National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.

 

Rembrandt van Rijn

The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, 1632. Oil on canvas, 5’ 3 ¾” x 7’ 1 ¼”. Mauritshuis, The Hague.

 

 

Rembrandt van Rijn, Three Crosses (First State and Fourth State), 1653. Drypoint, 38.5 x 45 cm.

 

Rembrandt van Rijn: Self-Portrait (1658)

Oil on canvas, 52 5/8” x 40 7/8”. The Frick Collection, New York.

Johannes Vermeer, Woman Holding a Balance, c. 1664. Oil on canvas, 39.7 x 35.5 cm.

 

 

Jacob van Ruisdael, View of Haarlem from the Dunes at Overveen, c. 1670. Oil on canvas, 22” x 24 ¼”. Royal Picture Gallery, Mauritshuis, The Hague.

Pieter Claesz, Still Life with Tazza, 1636. Oil on panel, 44 x 61 cm.

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