Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach,
Solutions to Review Questions and Problems
Version Date: December 2016
This document contains the solutions to review questions and problems for the 7th edition of Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach by Jim Kurose and Keith Ross. These solutions are being made available to instructors ONLY. Please do NOT copy or distribute this document to others (even other instructors). Please do not post any solutions on a publicly-available Web site. We’ll be happy to provide a copy (up-to-date) of this solution manual ourselves to anyone who asks.
Acknowledgments: Over the years, several students and colleagues have helped us prepare this solutions manual. Special thanks goes to Honggang Zhang, Rakesh Kumar, Prithula Dhungel, and Vijay Annapureddy. Also thanks to all the readers who have made suggestions and corrected errors.
All material © copyright 1996-2016 by J.F. Kurose and K.W. Ross. All rights reserved
Chapter 1 Review Questions
1. There is no difference. Throughout this text, the words “host” and “end system” are used interchangeably. End systems include PCs, workstations, Web servers, mail servers, PDAs, Internet-connected game consoles, etc.
2. From Wikipedia: Diplomatic protocol is commonly described as a set of international courtesy rules. These well-established and time-honored rules have made it easier for nations and people to live and work together. Part of protocol has always been the acknowledgment of the hierarchical standing of all present. Protocol rules are based on the principles of civility.
3. Standards are important for protocols so that people can create networking systems and products that interoperate.
4. 1. Dial-up modem over telephone line: home; 2. DSL over telephone line: home or small office; 3. Cable to HFC: home; 4. 100 Mbps switched Ethernet: enterprise; 5. Wifi (802.11): home and enterprise: 6. 3G and 4G: wide-area wireless.
5. HFC bandwidth is shared among the users. On the downstream channel, all packets emanate from a single source, namely, the head end. Thus, there are no collisions in the downstream channel.
6. In most American cities, the current possibilities include: dial-up; DSL; cable modem; fiber-to-the-home.
7. Ethernet LANs have transmission rates of 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps, 1 Gbps and 10 Gbps.
8. Today, Ethernet most commonly runs over twisted-pair copper wire. It also can run over fibers optic links.
9. Dial up modems: up to 56 Kbps, bandwidth is dedicated; ADSL: up to 24 Mbps downstream and 2.5 Mbps upstream, bandwidth is dedicated; HFC, rates up to 42.8 Mbps and upstream rates of up to 30.7 Mbps, bandwidth is shared. FTTH: 2-10Mbps upload; 10-20 Mbps download; bandwidth is not shared.
10. There are two popular wireless Internet access technologies today:
a) Wifi (802.11) In a wireless LAN, wireless users transmit/receive packets to/from an base station (i.e., wireless access point) within a radius of few tens of meters. The base station is typically connected to the wired Internet and thus serves to connect wireless users to the wired network.
b) 3G and 4G wide-area wireless access networks. In these systems, packets are transmitted over the same wireless infrastructure used for cellular telephony, with the
base station thus being managed by a telecommunications provider. This provides
wireless access to users within a radius of tens of kilometers of the base station.
11. At time t0 the sending host begins to transmit. At time t1 = L/R1, the sending host
completes transmission and the entire packet is received at the router (no propagation
delay). Because the router has the entire packet at time t1, it can begin to transmit the
packet to the receiving host at time t1. At time t2 = t1 + L/R2, the router completes
transmission and the entire packet is received at the receiving host (again, no
propagation delay). Thus, the end-to-end delay is L/R1 + L/R2.
12. A circuit-switched network can guarantee a certain amount of end-to-end bandwidth
for the duration of a call. Most packet-switched networks today (including the
Internet) cannot make any end-to-end guarantees for bandwidth. FDM requires
sophisticated analog hardware to shift signal into appropriate frequency bands.
13. a) 2 users can be supported because each user requires half of the link bandwidth.
b) Since each user requires 1Mbps when transmitting, if two or fewer users transmit
simultaneously, a maximum of 2Mbps will be required. Since the available
bandwidth of the shared link is 2Mbps, there will be no queuing delay before the
link. Whereas, if three users transmit simultaneously, the bandwidth required
will be 3Mbps which is more than the available bandwidth of the shared link. In
this case, there will be queuing delay before the link.
c) Probability that a given user is transmitting = 0.2
d) Probability that all three users are transmitting simultaneously = ( ) 3 3 3 1
3 − −
= (0.2)3 = 0.008. Since the queue grows when all the users are transmitting, the
fraction of time during which the queue grows (which is equal to the probability
that all three users are transmitting simultaneously) is 0.008.
14. If the two ISPs do not peer with each other, then when they send traffic to each other
they have to send the traffic through a provider ISP (intermediary), to which they
have to pay for carrying the traffic. By peering with each other directly, the two ISPs
can reduce their payments to their provider ISPs. An Internet Exchange Points (IXP)
(typically in a standalone building with its own switches) is a meeting point where
multiple ISPs can connect and/or peer together. An ISP earns its money by charging
each of the the ISPs that connect to the IXP a relatively small fee, which may depend
on the amount of traffic sent to or received from the IXP.
15. Google’s private network connects together all its data centers, big and small. Traffic
between the Google data centers passes over its private network rather than over the
public Internet. Many of these data centers are located in, or close to, lower tier ISPs.
Therefore, when Google delivers content to a user, it often can bypass higher tier ISPs.
What motivates content providers to create these networks? First, the content provider
has more control over the user experience, since it has to use few intermediary ISPs. Second, it can save money by sending less traffic into provider networks. Third, if ISPs decide to charge more money to highly profitable content providers (in countries where net neutrality doesn’t apply), the content providers can avoid these extra payments.
16. The delay components are processing delays, transmission delays, propagation delays, and queuing delays. All of these delays are fixed, except for the queuing delays, which are variable.
17. a) 1000 km, 1 Mbps, 100 bytes
b) 100 km, 1 Mbps, 100 bytes
18. 10msec; d/s; no; no
19. a) 500 kbps
b) 64 seconds
c) 100kbps; 320 seconds
20. End system A breaks the large file into chunks. It adds header to each chunk, thereby generating multiple packets from the file. The header in each packet includes the IP address of the destination (end system B). The packet switch uses the destination IP address in the packet to determine the outgoing link. Asking which road to take is analogous to a packet asking which outgoing link it should be forwarded on, given the packet’s destination address.
21. The maximum emission rate is 500 packets/sec and the maximum transmission rate is
350 packets/sec. The corresponding traffic intensity is 500/350 =1.43 > 1. Loss will eventually occur for each experiment; but the time when loss first occurs will be different from one experiment to the next due to the randomness in the emission process.
22. Five generic tasks are error control, flow control, segmentation and reassembly, multiplexing, and connection setup. Yes, these tasks can be duplicated at different layers. For example, error control is often provided at more than one layer.
23. The five layers in the Internet protocol stack are – from top to bottom – the application layer, the transport layer, the network layer, the link layer, and the physical layer. The principal responsibilities are outlined in Section 1.5.1.
24. Application-layer message: data which an application wants to send and passed onto the transport layer; transport-layer segment: generated by the transport layer and encapsulates application-layer message with transport layer header; network-layer datagram: encapsulates transport-layer segment with a network-layer header; link-layer frame: encapsulates network-layer datagram with a link-layer header
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