Describing clinical questions on a project

This section describes the clinical questions the project will answer and identifies the variables using the format appropriate for the specific design. Finally, this section includes a discussion of the clinical questions, relating them to the problem statement. This section should be two or three paragraphs long and illustrate how the methodological framework is aligned with the problem statement and purpose of the project, providing additional context for the project.CriterionLearner Score (0, 1, 2, or 3)Chairperson Score (0, 1, 2, or 3)Comments or FeedbackRationale for MethodologyThis section clearly justifies the methodology the investigator plans to use for conducting the project. It argues how the methodological framework is the best approach to answer the clinical questions and address the problem statement. It uses citations from textbooks and articles on DPI project methodology or articles on related studies. (Two or three paragraphs)This section identifies the specific project method for the project.This section justifies the method to be used for the project by discussing why it is the best approach for answering the clinical question and addressing the problem statement.This section uses citations from textbooks or literature on the DPI project methodology to justify the use of the selected methodology.This section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, and uses correct paragraph structure, sentence structure, punctuation, and APA format.NOTE: Once the document has been approved by your chairperson and your committee and is ready to submit for AQR review, please remove all of these assessment tables from this document.Score 0 (not present); 1 (unacceptable; needs substantial edits); 2 (present but needs some editing); 3 (publication ready).

Nature of the Project Design

This section describes the specific project design (quasi-experimental) to answer the clinical questions and why this approach was selected. (see Appendix B) Here, the learner discusses why the selected design is the best design to address the problem statement and clinical questions as compared to other designs. You should be focusing on the design rather than the methodology in this section. Briefly describes how the design supports the intervention and solution to the practice problem. This section also contains a description of the project sample being investigated, as well as the process that will be used to collect the data on the sample. In other words, this section provides a preview of Chapter 3 and succinctly conveys the project approach to answer clinical questions.CriterionLearner Score (0, 1, 2, or 3)Chairperson Score (0, 1, 2, or 3)Comments or FeedbackNature of the ProjectThis section describes the specific project design to answer the clinical questions and why this approach was selected. It describes the project sample as well as the process that will be used to collect the data on the sample.This section describes the selected design for the project.This section discusses why the selected design is the best design to address the problem statement and clinical questions as compared to other designs.This section briefly describes the specific sample and the data collection procedure to collect information on the sample. Briefly describes how the design supports the intervention and solution to the practice problem.This section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, and uses correct paragraph structure, sentence structure, punctuation, and APA format.NOTE: Once the document has been approved by your chairperson and your committee and is ready to submit for AQR review, please remove all of these assessment tables from this document.Score 0 (not present); 1 (unacceptable; needs substantial edits); 2 (present but needs some editing); 3 (publication ready).

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Definition of Terms

The Definition of Terms section of Chapter 1 defines the project constructs and provides a common understanding of the technical terms, exclusive jargon, variables, phenomena, concepts, and sundry terminology used within the scope of the project. Terms are defined in lay terms and in the context in which they are used within the project. Each definition may be a few sentences to a paragraph in length. This section includes any words that may be unknown to a lay person (words with unusual or ambiguous meanings or technical terms) from the evidence or literature. It provides a rationale for each assumption and defines the variables.Definitions must be supported with citations from scholarly sources. Do not use Wikipedia to define terms. This popular “open source” online encyclopedia can be helpful and interesting for the layperson, but it is not appropriate for formal academic scholarly writing. Additionally, do not use dictionaries to define terms. A paragraph introducing this section prior to listing the definition of terms can be inserted. However, a lead in phrase is needed to introduce the terms such as: “The following terms were used operationally in this project.” This is also a good place to operationally define unique phrases specific to this project. See below for the correct format:Term. Comment by Author: This is how each of your terms should be listed in this section.Write the definition of the word. This is considered a Level 3 heading. Make sure the definition is properly cited (Author, 2010).Clinical Significance.Clinical significance (also known as clinical relevance) indicates whether the results of a project are meaningful or not for several stakeholders. Statistical significance does not assure that the results are clinically relevant. Indeed, the use of significance testing rarely determines the practical importance or clinical relevance of findings (Armijo-Olivo, 2018)Comparison and Intervention Group.Refers to the sample groups of data in your project as the comparison group and the intervention group. These groups can be used to compare the baseline practice to the direct practice improvement. There are two approaches to the data of these groups. Between-group differences show how two or more groups of the data are sampled or participants are different, whereas within-group differences show differences among data or participants who are in the same single group of the sample (Creswell & Creswell, 2018). Further, within-group differences can come to light when looking at the results of a between-groups approach including individual differences associated with the sample or group. (see Figure 1). Please note that there are no control groups in the DPI. If the learner writes control groups as a comparison group, the DPI will not move forward.Statistical Significance.Statistical significance shows a result is unlikely due to chance. It is a result which indicates a level of confidence a result did not occur solely from sample selection. The investigator determines the level of significance for the project (e.g. p<.05 or p<.01). The p-value is the probability of obtaining the difference measured from a sample if there really is not a difference for all users. If the p-value obtained is less than this level determined in the proposal by the investigator, it would be considered statistically significant. The investigator would infer the intervention caused the difference. Statistical significance is not clinical significance or whether the results of a project are meaningful or not for several stakeholders (Creswell & Creswell, 2018).Terms often use abbreviations. According to APA (2010), abbreviations are best used only when they allow for clear communication with the audience. Standard abbreviations, such as units of measurement and names of states, do not need to be written out.Only certain units of time should be abbreviated. Abbreviate hr. (hour), min (minute), ms (millisecond), ns (nanosecond), or s (second). However, do not abbreviate day, week, month, and year [4.27]. To form the plural of abbreviations, add “s” alone without apostrophe or italicization (e.g., vols., IQs, Eds.). The exception to this rule is not to add “s” to pluralize units of measurement (12 m not 12 ms) [4.29].CriterionLearner Score (0, 1, 2, or 3)Chairperson Score (0, 1, 2, or 3)Comments or FeedbackDefinitions of TermsThis section defines the project constructs and provides a common understanding of the technical terms, exclusive jargon, variables, phenomena, concepts, and sundry terminology used within the scope of the project. Terms are defined in lay terms and in the context in which they are used within the project. (Each definition may be a few sentences to a paragraph in length.)This section Defines any words that may be unknown to a lay person (words with unusual or ambiguous means or technical terms) from the evidence or literature.This section defines the variables for a quantitative project.Definitions are supported with citations from scholarly sources.This section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, and uses correct paragraph structure, sentence structure, punctuation, and APA format.NOTE: Once the document has been approved by your chairperson and your committee and is ready to submit for AQR review, please remove all of these assessment tables from this document.Score 0 (not present); 1 (unacceptable; needs substantial edits); 2 (present but needs some editing); 3 (publication ready).

Assumptions, Limitations, Delimitations

This section identifies the assumptions and specifies the limitations, as well as the delimitations, of the project. It should be four to six paragraphs in length.An assumption is a self-evident truth. Assumptions are things that are accepted as true, or at least plausible, by other researchers, peers, and generally to most people will read your project. In other words, any scholar reading your paper will assume that certain aspects of your project are true given your population, statistical test, project design, or other delimitations. For example, if you tell your friend that your favorite restaurant is an Italian place, your friend will assume that you don’t go there for the sushi. It’s assumed that you go there to eat Italian food. Because most assumptions are not discussed in-text, assumptions that are discussed in-text are discussed in the context of the limitations of your project, which is typically in the discussion section. This is important, because both assumptions and limitations affect the inferences you can draw from your project.This section should list what is assumed to be true about the information gathered in the project. State the assumptions being accepted for the project as methodological, theoretical, or topic specific. For each assumption listed, you must also provide an explanation. Provide a rationale for each assumption, incorporating multiple perspectives, when appropriate. For example, the following assumptions were present in this project:1. It is assumed that survey participants in this project were not deceptive with their answers, and that the participants answered questions honestly and to the best of their ability. Provide an explanation to support this assumption.2. It is assumed that this project is an accurate representation of the current situation in rural southern Arizona. Provide an explanation to support this assumption. Limitations are things that the investigator has no control over, such as bias.It is important to remember that your limitations and assumptions should not contradict one another. Assumptions are also present with the statistical tests performed in the DPI. These assumptions refer to the characteristics of the data, such as distributions, trends, and variable type, just to name a few. Violating these assumptions can lead to drastically invalid results, though this often depends on sample size and other considerations.Limitations are a systematic bias that you did not or could not control which could inappropriately affect the results. Delimitation is a systematic bias intentionally introduced into the study design or instrument by you. Possible limitations and delimitations in study design or impact and statistical or data limitations: For example, sample choice and size of the sample, the availability and reliability of data , access to protected or proprietary data, methods/instruments/techniques used to collect the data, the use of self‐reported data, time constraints or cultural and other communication issues.Delimitations are things over which the investigator has control, such as location of the project, population and sample, and data collection tools like the electronic health record (EHR).Identify the limitations and delimitations of the project design. Discuss the potential generalizability of the project findings based on these limitations. For each limitation and delimitation listed, make sure to provide an associated explanation. For example: The following limitations/delimitations were present in this project:1. Lack of funding limited the scope of this project. Provide an explanation to support this limitation.2. The survey of high school students was delimited to only rural schools in one county within southern Arizona, limiting the demographic sample. Provide an explanation to support this delimitation.Identify the limitations of your project and explain the importance of each. Reflect on the nature of the limitations and justify the choices made during the project. Advance the evidence by suggesting how such limitations could be overcome in future.CriterionLearner Score (0, 1, 2, or 3)Chairperson Score (0, 1, 2, or 3)Comments or FeedbackAssumptions, Limitations and DelimitationsThis section identifies the assumptions and specifies the limitations, as well as the delimitations, of the project. (3-4 paragraphs)This section states the assumptions being accepted for the project (methodological, theoretical, and topic-specific).This section provides rationale for each assumption, incorporating multiple perspectives, when appropriate.This section identifies limitations and delimitations of the project design.This section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, and uses correct paragraph structure, sentence structure, punctuation, and APA format.NOTE: Once the document has been approved by your chairperson and your committee and is ready to submit for AQR review, please remove all of these assessment tables from this document.Score 0 (not present); 1 (unacceptable; needs substantial edits); 2 (present but needs some editing); 3 (publication ready).

Summary and Organization of the Remainder of the Project

This section summarizes the key points of Chapter 1 and provides supporting citations for those key points. It then provides a transition discussion to Chapter 2 followed by a description of the remaining chapters. For example, Chapter 2 will present a review of current evidence on the centrality of the practice improvement project literature review and the existing evidence available to guide project preparation. Chapter 3 will describe the methodology, design, and procedures for this investigation. Chapter 4 details how the data was analyzed and provides both a written and graphic summary of the results. Chapter 5 is an interpretation and discussion of the results, as they relate to the existing body of evidence related to the practice improvement project topic.CriterionLearner Score (0, 1, 2, or 3)Chairperson Score (0, 1, 2, or 3)Comments or FeedbackOrganization of the Remainder of the ProjectThis section summarizes the key points of Chapter 1 and provides supporting citations for those key points. It then provides a transition discussion to Chapter 2, followed by a description of the remaining chapters.This section summarizes key points presented in Chapter 1.This section provides citations to support key points.Chapter 1 summary ends with transition discussion to Chapter 2.This section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, and uses correct paragraph structure, sentence structure, punctuation, and APA format.NOTE: Once the document has been approved by your chairperson and your committee and is ready to submit for AQR review, please remove all of these assessment tables from this document.Score 0 (not present); 1 (unacceptable; needs substantial edits); 2 (present but needs some editing); 3 (publication ready).

Chapter 2: Literature Review Comment by Author: This section should be a minimum of 20-25 pages.

This chapter presents the theoretical framework for the project and develops the topic, specific practice problem, question(s), and design elements. In order to perform significant practice improvement projects, the learners must first understand the literature related to the project focus. A well-articulated, thorough literature review provides the foundation for substantial, contributory projects or evidence. The purpose of Chapter 2 is to develop a well-documented argument for the selection of the project topic, formulate the clinical questions, and justify the choice of methodology as introduced in Chapter 1. A literature review is a synthesis of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and investigators. It is not an expanded annotated bibliography or a summary of peer reviewed articles related to your topic.The literature review will place the project focus into context by analyzing and discussing the existing body of knowledge and effectively presenting the reader with an exhaustive review of known information. The comprehensive presentation should include as much information as possible pertaining to what has been discovered in the evidence about that focus, and where the gaps and tensions in the evidence exist. As a piece of writing, the literature review must convey to the reader what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic and build an argument in support of the practice problem.This section describes the overall topic to be investigated, outlines the approach taken for the literature review, and defines the evolution of the problem based on the evidence to cover the gap or need to improve population health outcomes. Make sure the Introduction and Background section of your literature review addresses the following required components:· Introduction: States the overall purpose of the project.· Introduction: Provides an orienting paragraph so the reader knows what the literature review will address.· Introduction: Describes how the chapter will be organized (including the specific sections and subsections).· Introduction: Describes how the literature was surveyed, so the reader can evaluate the thoroughness of the review.· Background: Provides a historical overview of the problem based on the gap or need defined in the literature and how it originated. This section must contain empirical (original research) citations. Present strong evidence for the intervention.· Background: Discusses how the problem has evolved historically into its current form.Criterion Comment by Author: All of the criterion tables must be removed prior to all AQR, IRB, and final submissions.Learner Score (0, 1, 2, or 3)Chairperson Score (0, 1, 2, or 3)Comments or FeedbackIntroduction (to the Chapter) and Background (to the Problem)This section describes the overall topic to be investigated, outlines the approach taken for the literature review, and defines the evolution of the problem based on the gap or need defined in the literature from its origination to its current form.Introduction states the overall purpose of the project.Introduction provides an orienting paragraph so the reader knows what the literature review will address.Introduction describes how the chapter will be organized (including the specific sections and subsections).Introduction describes how the literature was surveyed so the reader can evaluate the thoroughness of the review.Background provides the historical overview of the problem based on the gap or need defined in the literature and how it originated.Background discusses how the problem has evolved historically into its current form.This section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, and uses correct paragraph structure, sentence structure, punctuation, and APA format.NOTE: Once the document has been approved by your chairperson and your committee and is ready to submit for AQR review, please remove all of these assessment tables from this document.Score 0 (not present); 1 (unacceptable; needs substantial edits); 2 (present but needs some editing); 3 (publication ready).

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