Difference Between Eupnea and Apnea
Eupnea is normal breathing that indicates a healthy respiratory cycle. Apnea is not healthy and causes breathing cessation, unlike eupnea. The thoracic volume initially remains unchanged during apnea, while eupnea accordingly alters it. The primary inspiratory muscles, the diaphragm, and external intercostals get actively included during eupnea. However, the associated muscles do not show movements when apnea happens. Eupnea exhibits uninterrupted airflow by altering the intrapulmonary volume and creating pressure gradients. The air passage rate in apnea depends on how blocked the respiratory tract is, and sometimes there may not be a proper air exchange between the lungs and the atmosphere. Eupnea is involuntary, and apnea could be either involuntary or voluntarily done.
Apnea does not significantly affect cellular respiration and usually gets diagnosed in childhood. It can be induced by drugs, choking, strangulation, or neurological trauma. Sleep apnea is a common breathing condition, which negatively impacts the standard eupnea rate and may happen a hundred times per hour. Studies show that apnea may be a result of heightened emotions and gets characterized by erratic breathing. People can voluntarily turn eupnea into apnea by blocking the nasal vestibule and closing the vocal cords. One may constantly activate the expiratory muscles to trigger apnea but, prolonged apnea leads to potential brain damage and hypothermia. Another significant difference is that eupnea efficiency removes carbon dioxide. Apnea fails in metabolic carbon dioxide removal that leads to its accumulation in the blood.
Respiratory Physiology in Eupnea
Eupnea is associated with intrapleural and alveolar physiologies. It works as per Boyle’s law or the inversely proportional between the volume and pressure. For example, if the volume decreases then the pressure increases. The eupnea ventilation physiology depends on the intrapleural, intra-alveolar, and atmospheric pressure. The visceral and parietal pleurae exhibit salient physiological changes as per the different eupnea phases. The pleural fluid adhesiveness aids in the outward motion of the lungs when the thoracic wall moves during inspiration. Water present in the alveolar lining also assists in providing surface tension within the alveoli during eupnea.
The thoracic wall shows stretching abilities while under eupnea to get expanded. The thoracic expansion directly controls the lungs as well. Optimal eupnea physiological steps only occur with thoracic wall compliance. Eupnea disrupts if the thoracic wall fails to be compliant. There are specific peripheral and central chemoreceptors with oxygen sensitivity to ensure eupnea. It can control the drive to breathe by signaling any deteriorating oxygen level changes. The expiration at eupnea is the largely passive process leading to the pressure equilibrium stage. Healthy eupnea physiology shows an average of 12 to 16 breaths per minute.
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