The importance of water in the physiology and cellular activities of all living organisms is profound. Thus, water is crucial for all daily activities, and a deficit of it leads to disastrous effects.
The unavailability of potable drinking water is one of the predominant adversity associated with water stress. Contaminated water imposes a threat to human health and causes infectious diseases. Water-borne pathogens like viruses, bacteria, protozoa, nematodes, and others often cause debilitating disease. These diseases are usually contagious and engender endemics and epidemics.
In many water-poor countries, let alone potable water, the availability of water required for bare necessities becomes a formidable challenge. It hampers the very mode of living.
Prolonged water shortage leads to a hike in water prices. In many African countries, potable water is often costlier than meals. As a result, it becomes difficult to afford water which forces people to limit water consumption.
The recommended daily water intake of a person should be an average of 2 liters. Thus, not meeting the daily water requirement for an extended period causes dehydration. In addition, toxic waste products accumulate in the body and lead to other physiological adversities.
Water stress negatively impacts crop production. This is because crop fields require sufficient irrigation for the crops to grow and produce the desired yield. However, with water stress, there is a shortage of good food plants, leading to hunger and malnutrition.
Various activities like cleaning and washing require water. Thus, water stress leads to poor sanitary conditions and outbreaks of infectious diseases.
Plant Physiological Response to Water Stress
Water stress causes drought-like conditions and induces physiological stress in crop plants. Crop plants account for the primary source of food in both humans and animals. Plants respond to water stress by undertaking particular adaptive measures, which help them combat drought conditions. Water stress is one of the principal abiotic stresses, which leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants
Plants upregulate the abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis pathway. It is a plant hormone that plays a critical role in regulating stomatal transpiration. It opens or closes the stomata according to water availability and controls the photosynthetic rate. Thus, overexpression of ABA during water stress usually keeps the stomata closed and minimizes water loss through transpiration.
ABA also upregulates the expression of storage proteins in plants, like the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. LEA increases plant tolerance against desiccation and drought conditions during water stress.
During water stress, plants also upregulate the expression of several metabolites, like proline, phenolics, and polyphenolic compounds. These metabolites act as ROS scavengers and prevent the plants from succumbing to water stress-mediated oxidative stress.
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