Ethnographic evidence cycles of Northern Iroquoian

QUESTION
MAY 01, 2019

1 According to ethnographic evidence, cycles of Northern Iroquoian violence and warfare were perpetuated by ________.

1 According to ethnographic evidence, cycles of Northern Iroquoian violence and warfare were perpetuated by ________.

an ideology that every death could be blamed on an enemy and must be revenged

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the idea that all resources should be distributed evenly among tribes

spiritual mandates requiring fighting on ceremonial days throughout the year

shows of masculinity to attract potential marriage partners

conflicts over rights to hunting lands between communities

2 After contact by the Spanish in the 1500s, the use of maize by Native Americans in northern Florida _____________.

became more intensive

became non-existent as they switched to European wheat

stayed exactly the same because they never used maize

shows up in the archaeological record for the first time

3 Which of the following is the BEST definition of “creole” as used in the readings?

a fishing implement used to harvest shrimp and small fish in estuary regions off the Gulf Coast

a style of cooking that originated in Louisiana during the Late Archaic period

a style of food and cultural traditions brought with the Spanish to the Greater Antilles

a culture of mixed ancestry, usually in a colonial setting

a type of Native American tribe found only in the southeastern United States

4 Evidence for the earliest cultural contact and trade between Mexican cultures and the mainland US before the arrival of Europeans is provided by __________________.

the presence of Aztec and Maya city-states in Florida and Louisiana

the spread of domesticated tobacco and cotton crop plants

the Paleo-Indian colonization of the U.S. via the Bering Land Bridge and Pacific Coastline

the presence of related languages in the Southeastern U.S. and Venezuela on the South American coast

5 Hunters of the Great Plains were generally unable to hunt individual bison effectively before the arrival of the Spanish because ____________________.

simple tribal organization was insufficient to coordinate hunting efforts

their stone-tipped arrow technology was unable to kill large mammals in most cases

they had no efficient means of pursuing bison

bison were few and far between until Spanish breeding programs dramatically increased their population

disease had drastically decreased the size and number of bison herds

6 There is little mention of Great Basin petroglyphs in Numic oral traditions because _____________.

Julian Steward encouraged the Numic not to share their interpretations of the petroglyphs with non-Numic peoples

Numic oral traditions were created by men, while petroglyphs were created by women

the petroglyphs were made by people of the Fremont culture who did not share their oral traditions with Numic invaders

petroglyphs were created by Numic shamans who are loathe to divulge their secrets

7 The __________ and the Columbia are two major rivers that drain most of the Plateau region of the Northwest Coast.

Snake

Fraser

Golden

Spruce

Salmon Run

8 Which of the following BEST describes the early villages of the Coalescent tradition?

partially subterranean stone buildings with thatch roofs

temporary settlements consisting of a ring of tepees around a central fire

earth lodges closely clustered for defensive purposes

earth lodges widely spaced to take advantage of as much farmland as possible

groups of longhouses spread out along a river

9 Linguistically, the Native American cultures of California can BEST be described as___________.

a mosaic of dozens of cultures speaking mutually unintelligible languages

descendants of dozens of independent migrations that each maintained their own linguistic identity

descendants of two main language families that did not interact with one another

single cultural family speaking dialects of the same language

10 The presence of celts, adzes, and mauls at Early Holocene sites on the Northwest Coast indicates that ______________.

warfare was on the rise

heavy woodworking was growing in importance

the Mesoamerican ballgame had spread northward

a switch occurred from wigwam-style houses to pithouses

draft animals were being used to plow fields

11 Archaeological evidence from the Skyrocket site indicates that hunter-gatherers in California adapted to cooler, wetter, climatic conditions around 3000 BCE by ______________.

moving towards the coasts and utilizing more marine resources

becoming increasingly dependent on sagebrush and juniper berries

increasing their use of acorns

adopting maize agriculture

12 Which of the following marks the beginning of the Early Holocene (5300-2200BCE) period in the Pacific Northwest?

the first appearance of large earthworks used for defensive purposes

a significant increase in average yearly temperature occurred

the dropping of sea levels to their modern positions

the first truly permanent communities of large plank houses were built

the first appearance of the large marine shell middens

13 Early Eskimos of the Arctic Small Tool tradition were likely unable to venture far from forests because they ________________________.

relied almost exclusively on large terrestrial game for subsistence

required large trees to build dugout canoes

needed wood for fuel

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