1 According to ethnographic evidence, cycles of Northern Iroquoian violence and warfare were perpetuated by ________.
an ideology that every death could be blamed on an enemy and must be revenged
the idea that all resources should be distributed evenly among tribes
spiritual mandates requiring fighting on ceremonial days throughout the year
shows of masculinity to attract potential marriage partners
conflicts over rights to hunting lands between communities
2 After contact by the Spanish in the 1500s, the use of maize by Native Americans in northern Florida _____________.
became more intensive
became non-existent as they switched to European wheat
stayed exactly the same because they never used maize
shows up in the archaeological record for the first time
3 Which of the following is the BEST definition of “creole” as used in the readings?
a fishing implement used to harvest shrimp and small fish in estuary regions off the Gulf Coast
a style of cooking that originated in Louisiana during the Late Archaic period
a style of food and cultural traditions brought with the Spanish to the Greater Antilles
a culture of mixed ancestry, usually in a colonial setting
a type of Native American tribe found only in the southeastern United States
4 Evidence for the earliest cultural contact and trade between Mexican cultures and the mainland US before the arrival of Europeans is provided by __________________.
the presence of Aztec and Maya city-states in Florida and Louisiana
the spread of domesticated tobacco and cotton crop plants
the Paleo-Indian colonization of the U.S. via the Bering Land Bridge and Pacific Coastline
the presence of related languages in the Southeastern U.S. and Venezuela on the South American coast
5 Hunters of the Great Plains were generally unable to hunt individual bison effectively before the arrival of the Spanish because ____________________.
simple tribal organization was insufficient to coordinate hunting efforts
they had no efficient means of pursuing bison
bison were few and far between until Spanish breeding programs dramatically increased their population
disease had drastically decreased the size and number of bison herds
6 There is little mention of Great Basin petroglyphs in Numic oral traditions because _____________.
Julian Steward encouraged the Numic not to share their interpretations of the petroglyphs with non-Numic peoples
Numic oral traditions were created by men, while petroglyphs were created by women
the petroglyphs were made by people of the Fremont culture who did not share their oral traditions with Numic invaders
petroglyphs were created by Numic shamans who are loathe to divulge their secrets
7 The __________ and the Columbia are two major rivers that drain most of the Plateau region of the Northwest Coast.
8 Which of the following BEST describes the early villages of the Coalescent tradition?
partially subterranean stone buildings with thatch roofs
temporary settlements consisting of a ring of tepees around a central fire
earth lodges closely clustered for defensive purposes
earth lodges widely spaced to take advantage of as much farmland as possible
groups of longhouses spread out along a river
9 Linguistically, the Native American cultures of California can BEST be described as___________.
a mosaic of dozens of cultures speaking mutually unintelligible languages
descendants of dozens of independent migrations that each maintained their own linguistic identity
descendants of two main language families that did not interact with one another
single cultural family speaking dialects of the same language
10 The presence of celts, adzes, and mauls at Early Holocene sites on the Northwest Coast indicates that ______________.
warfare was on the rise
heavy woodworking was growing in importance
the Mesoamerican ballgame had spread northward
a switch occurred from wigwam-style houses to pithouses
draft animals were being used to plow fields
11 Archaeological evidence from the Skyrocket site indicates that hunter-gatherers in California adapted to cooler, wetter, climatic conditions around 3000 BCE by ______________.
moving towards the coasts and utilizing more marine resources
becoming increasingly dependent on sagebrush and juniper berries
increasing their use of acorns
adopting maize agriculture
12 Which of the following marks the beginning of the Early Holocene (5300-2200BCE) period in the Pacific Northwest?
the first appearance of large earthworks used for defensive purposes
a significant increase in average yearly temperature occurred
the dropping of sea levels to their modern positions
the first truly permanent communities of large plank houses were built
the first appearance of the large marine shell middens
13 Early Eskimos of the Arctic Small Tool tradition were likely unable to venture far from forests because they ________________________.
relied almost exclusively on large terrestrial game for subsistence
required large trees to build dugout canoes
needed wood for fuel
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