The phenotype of organisms can be changed to express a novel gene product. In an organism, the changes help understand what role a particular gene plays in which aspect of the organism’s biology. One of the fields of transgenic applications is commercial production, such as plants resistant to herbicides, which help eliminate weeds from the crops without damaging the crop itself. Glyphosate resistance is one example, which is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is toxic to plants. Glyphosate imparts a lower environmental impact than the other herbicides and rapidly degrades in the soil. It is generally used in fields to clean the crop of weeds either before the germination of seeds or before the seeds are sown. Glyphosate inhibits the enzyme 5-enolpyruvoylshikimate-3-phosphate synthetase, which is responsible for the biosynthesis of some essential amino acids. This enzyme is not found in animals. So, it is less toxic to organisms other than plants. The transgenes are also used to change the phenotype of an organism and the production of disease models. The organisms are genetically altered to display traits similar to that of human disease.
The phenomenon to construct transgenic organisms is recombinant DNA. The recombination is observable during meiosis, as homologous chromosomes form pairs and physically exchange pieces of their DNA with one another. DNA recombination is a complex process; here, both the strands of the two DNA molecules get broken and rejoined. As they are swapped, new molecules are rejoined, such that the original molecules are restored. Recombination depends on the nature of the starting molecules. The linear DNA molecule, for example, chromosome and the circular DNA molecule, are used in the process, as the linear molecule integrates into a plasmid.
Homologous recombination is the most frequent form of naturally occurring recombination, whereas non-homologous recombination is used in the formation of transgenic organisms. Non-homologous recombination lacks DNA homology between the chromosome and the novel DNA. The specialized form of homologous recombination is site-specific recombination. The site-specific recombination is similar to the homologous recombination, but the homology’s length is very short.
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