Classical conditioning is theory of learning. This hypothesis states that learning occurs due to the active and repeated pairing of two or more stimuli. The basic idea behind classical conditioning is that learning occurs through association. The study primarily involves three stages namely- before conditioning, during conditioning, and after conditioning. The hypothesis of classical conditioning is based on four principles which are acquisition, extinction spontaneous recovery, and stimulus generalization. Today our focus is going to be on extinction. The word â€˜extinctionâ€™ surfaces from the ancient Latin term, â€˜extinguereâ€™ which means to quench. Even though the term literally means to fulfill of satisfy, in the modern day English language it is used to define something that no longer exists. So, extinction in classical conditioning refers to the dying of the response or the stage where the learning no longer exists. This is mainly because either there is no positive outcome from the response for a very long time (reward) or lack of recall or retrieval. Apart from this going out of practice too may contribute to the phenomenon of extinction in classical conditioning.
Simply put, extinction is a type of a behavioral episode that is observed mainly in classical conditioning but also in operant learning. This phenomenon is marked by the fading away of learned response which of course happens with the passage of time. Usually the cause of extinction is the discontinuity of the pairing of the stimulus for a prolonged period of time. Another reason why extinction may occur is because of the eventual decline in the intensity with which learning occurs. This happens in two ways, either both the conditioned and the unconditioned stimuli are unpaired and repeatedly presented independently or only the conditioned stimulus is presented for a (very) long period of time. Now when we say â€˜eventual declineâ€™, it means that extinction does not happen over night or within a moment but it occurs gradually and slowly. The response begins to reduce over time (given the extinction conditions are satisfied) finally making the organism forget what it learned. In the upcoming sections we shall study the concept of trace decay, the technique of extinction in ABA, and as well as the phenomenon of spontaneous recovery.
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