In order to understand the orientation by tracing the cell division, the fate map technique is utilized. This also helps to understand the fate of each cell and the designation of it. Many embryologists and developmental biologists use fate mapping to understand the reproduction and development of an animal from the embryonic stage. The blastomere stage of embryonic development is studied in this technique by tracing a particular cell and its movement into the germ layers. Later, these positions are categorized to be individual cells in the germ layer. This can be given in the form of the fate of the cells in the gastrulation stage of development. A fate map is a representation that is given as charts or graphs with every detail of the cells present in the embryo of an animal.
The orientation of cells in animal development:
â€¢ In Amphioxus- The early stage of the cleavage of the embryo of amphioxus is studied for the cell orientation utilizing the fate map technique. There were certain cells without any orientation and without undergoing cleavage which represented the organs that are to be developed in the future. However, these cells, later on, starting differentiating into endodermal cells and oriented themselves at the embryoâ€™s vegetal pole. Cluster cells that oriented themselves in the animal pole were known to differentiate into ectodermal cells. In between these two layers of cells, the mesodermal cells were oriented. Few cells were also known to develop into neural cells as well as the notochord.
â€¢ In Frog- Understanding the cell orientation in the blastula of the frog was quite difficult as it did not show any movement till the 32 celled stages. They did not even exhibit different cleavage. The yolky macromeres of the blastula of the frog are located at the vegetal pole and were predicted to develop into endoderm. However, the cells that were oriented in the animal pole was predicted to develop into ectoderm. Mesoderm cells oriented themselves in between the ectoderm and the endoderm layers to form the organs like kidney and heart.
â€¢ In Chicken- The orientation of the epiblast cells was studied utilizing the fate map in the chicken embryo. These cells oriented themselves near the notochord and the nervous system. The knob-like shape is formed by the cells in the ectoderm portion and the cells in the mesoderm part are oriented in a way to form the parts of the body.
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