Radioactive decay: When an unstable atomic nucleus undergoes spontaneous breakdown and results in the releasing of matter and energy from the nucleus, it is known as radioactive decay. Decay of the nuclides provide a wide range for the measurement of ages.
Â· Determination of decay constant: Per year decay probability of an atom is known as radioactive decay constant and it is the firm foundation of radioactivity common measurements. Determination of ageâ€™s precision and accuracy totally depends on the decay constantâ€™s precision and accuracy.
Â· Radiometric dating accuracy: Accuracy and precision is important in radiometric dating as it needs gathering more information about parent nuclides.
Â· Closure temperature: There is a need to know the rockâ€™s thermal history in several cases. Blocking temperature or closure temperature is that temperature under which minerals of the studied isotopes is a closed system.
Methods of dating
There are several modern dating techniques which are used to date the materials.
Â· Uranium-lead dating
This dating method uses uranium 238 or uranium 235 for dating the absolute age of the substance. Materials like monazite, baddeleyite and zircon are those on which uranium-lead dating has been performed.
Â· Potassium-argon dating
This dating method requires the positron decay or electron capture of potassium-40 into argon-40. Half-life of potassium-40 is 1.3 billion, therefore, this method can be applied on the oldest rocks.
Â· Rubidium-strontium dating
In this, rubidium-87 decays to strontium-87 by the process of beta decay and 50 billion of half-life. Lunar samples, metamorphic rocks and old igneous have been dated by using this scheme. But its precision is low compared to uranium-lead dating method.
Â· Radiocarbon dating
This dating is also known as carbon-14 dating. Carbonâ€™s radioactive isotope is carbon-14 having 5,730 years of half-life and decays further into nitrogen. This ideal dating technique is important method to date organisms remainingâ€™s or age of bones.
Â· Uranium-thorium dating
This technique includes uranium-234 decay into thorium-230 with 80,000 years of half-life that is why it is a dating technique of short range. This process has been accompanied by a sister process. This technique is used to date the ocean sediments.
Â· Samarium-neodymium dating
In this 147Sm decays to 143Nd by the process of alpha decay and having 1.06 x 1011 years of half-life.
Â· Fission track dating
This technique is used for the application of huge range of geologic dates. Meteorites, tektites and micas are used for few million years dating and garnet, epidote, titanite, apatite and zircon are used to date older materials.
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