Genetics and clinical psychology

Test Bank for Exploring Lifespan Development 4th Edition by Berk

Chapter 1
History, theory, and research strategies

Multiple Choice

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1. Dr. Langley’s work is devoted to understanding constancy and change throughout the lifespan. Dr. Langley’s field of study is __________.

A) genetics

B) clinical psychology

C) adolescent development

D) developmental science

Answer: D

Page Ref: 3

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.1 What is developmental science, and what factors stimulated expansion of the field?

Topic: A Scientific, Applied, and Interdisciplinary Field

Difficulty Level: Moderate

2. Although great diversity characterizes the interests and concerns of investigators who study development, they share a single goal: to identify __________.

A) genetic factors that contribute to longevity

B) environmental factors that contribute to disease and illness

C) those factors that lead to abnormal development in children and adolescents

D) those factors that influence consistencies and transformations in people from conception to death

Answer: D

Page Ref: 3

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.1 What is developmental science, and what factors stimulated expansion of the field?

Topic: A Scientific, Applied, and Interdisciplinary Field

Difficulty Level: Moderate

3. Developmental science is __________ because it has grown through the combined efforts of people from many fields of study.

A) interdisciplinary

B) empirical

C) applied

D) theoretical

Answer: A

Page Ref: 3

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.1 What is developmental science, and what factors stimulated expansion of the field?

Topic: A Scientific, Applied, and Interdisciplinary Field

Difficulty Level: Easy

4. A theory of development __________.

A) illustrates the ultimate truth about human behavior

B) describes, explains, and predicts behavior

C) explains all aspects of human growth

D) does not require scientific verification

Answer: B

Page Ref: 3

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.2 Identify three basic issues on which theories of human development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Moderate

5. According to the __________ view of development, the difference between the immature and mature being is simply one of amount or complexity.

A) nature

B) discontinuous

C) nurture

D) continuous

Answer: D

Page Ref: 4

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.2 Identify three basic issues on which theories of human development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Moderate

6. The discontinuous view of development holds that __________.

A) infants and preschoolers respond to the world in much the same way adults do

B) growth is the process of gradually augmenting the skills that were present from the beginning

C) infants and children have unique ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving

D) development is a smooth process limited only by a lack of information and precision

Answer: C

Page Ref: 4

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.2 Identify three basic issues on which theories of human development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Difficult

7. Dr. Kostel believes that development takes place in stages. This belief is consistent with the __________ perspective.

A) nurture

B) continuous

C) discontinuous

D) nature

Answer: C

Page Ref: 4

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.2 Identify three basic issues on which theories of human development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Moderate

8. New evidence increasingly emphasizes that __________.

A) there is very little cultural diversity in human development

B) environmental, but not personal, contexts shape development

C) development occurs in a neat, orderly sequence of stages unaffected by distinct contexts

D) people not only are affected by but also contribute to the contexts in which they develop

Answer: D

Page Ref: 4

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.2 Identify three basic issues on which theories of human development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Difficult

9. Tammy’s father is an exceptional gymnast. When Tammy was just a toddler, her father believed that Tammy already showed great promise as a gymnast. Tammy’s father probably believes that athletic ability is mostly determined by __________.

A) nurture

B) stages

C) nature

D) early experiences

Answer: C

Page Ref: 5

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.2 Identify three basic issues on which theories of human development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Moderate

10. Although Justin spent his first 18 months in an orphanage, his adoptive mother believes sensitive caregiving will help Justin overcome his early experiences. Justin’s mother emphasizes the role of __________ in development.

A) nurture

B) stages

C) stability

D) nature

Answer: A

Page Ref: 5

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.2 Identify three basic issues on which theories of human development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Moderate

11. Theorists who contend that powerful negative events in the first few years cannot be fully overcome by later, more positive ones emphasize __________.

A) plasticity

B) stability

C) nurture

D) discontinuity

Answer: B

Page Ref: 5

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.2 Identify three basic issues on which theories of human development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Difficult

12. Theorists who emphasize plasticity believe that __________.

A) change in response to influential experiences is possible

B) heredity, rather than environment, influences behavior

C) individuals who are high in anxiety as children will remain so at later ages

D) early experiences establish a lifelong pattern of behavior

Answer: A

Page Ref: 5

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.2 Identify three basic issues on which theories of human development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Moderate

13. Increasingly, researchers view human development as __________.

A) taking place entirely before and during adolescence

B) declining in old age

C) influenced more by heredity than environment

D) a perpetually ongoing process

Answer: D

Page Ref: 5

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.3 Describe the lifespan perspective on development.

Topic: The Lifespan Perspective: A Balanced Point of View

Difficulty Level: Moderate

14. The lifespan perspective on human development assumes that development is __________.

A) static and stable

B) multidimensional and multidirectional

C) continuous, rather than discontinuous

D) largely the result of heredity

Answer: B

Page Ref: 5

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.3 Describe the lifespan perspective on development.

Topic: The Lifespan Perspective: A Balanced Point of View

Difficulty Level: Moderate

15. According to the lifespan perspective, __________ is supreme in its impact on the life course.

A) the prenatal period

B) early childhood

C) adolescence

D) no age period

Answer: D

Page Ref: 5

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.3 Describe the lifespan perspective on development.

Topic: The Lifespan Perspective: A Balanced Point of View

Difficulty Level: Easy

16. Max, age 65, learned to play the piano at a local senior center. Max demonstrates that __________.

A) aging is an eventual “shipwreck”

B) learning follows a predictable timetable

C) development is plastic at all ages

D) musical talent peaks in late adulthood

Answer: C

Page Ref: 6

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.3 Describe the lifespan perspective on development.

Topic: The Lifespan Perspective: A Balanced Point of View

Difficulty Level: Moderate

17. Which statement provides an example of an age-graded influence?

A) Paul learned to play the violin at age 11.

B) Frank got his driver’s license at age 16.

C) Martina got married at age 34.

D) Jesse learned to use a computer at age 21.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 7

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.3 Describe the lifespan perspective on development.

Topic: The Lifespan Perspective: A Balanced Point of View

Difficulty Level: Moderate

18. People born during the baby boom between 1946 and 1964 tend to be alike in ways that set them apart from people born at other times, due to __________ influences.

A) age-graded

B) history-graded

C) nonnormative

D) bio-historical

Answer: B

Page Ref: 7

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.3 Describe the lifespan perspective on development.

Topic: The Lifespan Perspective: A Balanced Point of View

Difficulty Level: Easy

19. __________ influences are irregular and do not follow a predictable timetable.

A) Nonnormative

B) History-graded

C) Age-graded

D) Bio-historical

Answer: A

Page Ref: 7

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.3 Describe the lifespan perspective on development.

Topic: The Lifespan Perspective: A Balanced Point of View

Difficulty Level: Easy

20. Although Betty grew up in a rundown neighborhood, had divorced parents, and rarely saw her father, she is a successful, happy, and healthy adult. Betty’s ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development is known as __________.

A) assimilation

B) resilience

C) age-graded development

D) multidimensional development

Answer: B

Page Ref: 8 Box: BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT: Resilience

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.3 Describe the lifespan perspective on development.

Topic: The Lifespan Perspective: A Balanced Point of View

Difficulty Level: Easy

21. The most consistent asset of resilient children is __________.

A) a strong bond with a competent, caring adult

B) high intelligence

C) an easygoing temperament

D) an association with a rule-abiding peer

Answer: A

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