Importance of promoting effective clinical outcomes

Stimulating critical thinking is a core value of this text. Innovative chapter features such as Critical Thinking Decision Paths, Evidence-Based Practice Tips, Helpful Hints, Critical Thinking Challenges, IPE Highlights, and QSEN Evidence-Based Practice Tips enhance critical thinking, promote the development of evidence-based decision-making skills, and cultivate a positive value

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about the importance of collaboration in promoting evidence-based, high quality and cost-effective clinical outcomes.

Consistent with previous editions, we promote critical thinking by including sections called “Appraising the Evidence,” which describe the critical appraisal process related to the focus of the chapter. Critiquing Criteria are included in this section to stimulate a systematic and evaluative approach to reading and understanding qualitative and quantitative research and evaluating its strengths and weaknesses. Extensive resources are provided on the Evolve site that can be used to develop critical thinking and evidence-based competencies.

The development and refinement of an evidence-based foundation for clinical nursing practice is an essential priority for the future of professional nursing practice. The ninth edition of Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice will help students develop a basic level of competence in understanding the steps of the research process that will enable them to critically analyze research studies, judge their merit, and judiciously apply evidence in clinical practice. To the extent that this goal is accomplished, the next generation of nursing professionals will have a cadre of clinicians who inform their practice using theory, research evidence, and clinical judgment, as they strive to provide high-quality, cost-effective, and satisfying health care experiences in partnership with individuals, families, and communities.

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To the student Geri LoBiondo-Wood, Geri.L.Wood@uth.tmc.edu, Judith Haber, jh33@nyu.edu

We invite you to join us on an exciting nursing research adventure that begins as you turn the first page of the ninth edition of Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice. The adventure is one of discovery! You will discover that the nursing research literature sparkles with pride, dedication, and excitement about the research dimension of professional nursing practice. Whether you are a student or a practicing nurse whose goal is to use research evidence as the foundation of your practice, you will discover that nursing research and a commitment to evidence-based practice positions our profession at the forefront of change. You will discover that evidence-based practice is integral to being an effective member of an interprofessional team prepared to meet the challenge of providing quality whole person care in partnership with patients, their families/significant others, as well as with the communities in which they live. Finally, you will discover the richness in the “Who,” “What,” “Where,” “When,” “Why,” and “How” of nursing research and evidence-based practice, developing a foundation of knowledge and skills that will equip you for clinical practice and making a significant contribution to achieving the Triple Aim, that is, contributing to high quality and cost-effective patient outcomes associated with satisfying patient experiences!

We think you will enjoy reading this text. Your nursing research course will be short but filled with new and challenging learning experiences that will develop your evidence-based practice skills. The ninth edition of Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice reflects cutting-edge trends for developing evidence-based nursing practice. The four-part organization and special features in this text are designed to help you develop your critical thinking, critical reading, information literacy, interprofessional, and evidence-based clinical decision-making skills, while providing a user-friendly approach to learning that expands your competence to deal with these new and challenging experiences. The companion Study Guide, with its chapter-by-chapter activities, serves as a self-paced learning tool to reinforce the content of the text. The accompanying Evolve website offers review questions to help you reinforce the concepts discussed throughout the book.

Remember that evidence-based practice skills are used in every clinical setting and can be applied to every patient population or clinical practice issue. Whether your clinical practice involves primary care or critical care and provides inpatient or outpatient treatment in a hospital, clinic, or home, you will be challenged to apply your evidence-based practice skills and use nursing research as the foundation for your evidence-based practice. The ninth edition of Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice will guide you through this exciting adventure, where you will discover your ability to play a vital role in contributing to the building of an evidence-based professional nursing practice.

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Acknowledgments Geri LoBiondo-Wood, Judith Haber

No major undertaking is accomplished alone; there are those who contribute directly and those who contribute indirectly to the success of a project. We acknowledge with deep appreciation and our warmest thanks the help and support of the following people:

• Our students, particularly the nursing students at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston School of Nursing and the Rory Meyers College of Nursing at New York University, whose interest, lively curiosity, and challenging questions sparked ideas for revisions in the ninth edition.

• Our chapter contributors, whose passion for research, expertise, cooperation, commitment, and punctuality made them a joy to have as colleagues.

• Our vignette contributors, whose willingness to share evidence of their research wisdom made a unique and inspirational contribution to this edition.

• Our colleagues, who have taken time out of their busy professional lives to offer feedback and constructive criticism that helped us prepare this ninth edition.

• Our editors, Lee Henderson, Melissa Rawe, and Carol O’Connell, for their willingness to listen to yet another creative idea about teaching research in a meaningful way and for their expert help with manuscript preparation and production.

• Our families: Rich Scharchburg; Brian Wood; Lenny, Andrew, Abbe, Brett, and Meredith Haber; and Laurie, Bob, Mikey, Benjy, and Noah Goldberg for their unending love, faith, understanding, and support throughout what is inevitably a consuming—but exciting—experience.

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PA R T I Overview of Research and Evidence-Based Practice Research Vignette: Terri Armstrong

OUTLINE

Introduction

1. Integrating research, evidence-based practice, and quality improvement processes

2. Research questions, hypotheses, and clinical questions

3. Gathering and appraising the literature

4. Theoretical frameworks for research

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Introduction

Research vignette With a little help from my friends Terri Armstrong, PhD ANP-BC, FAANP, FAAN Senior Investigator

Neuro-Oncology Branch National Cancer Institute National Institute of Health Bethesda, Maryland I grew up surrounded by family and strong role models of women working in health care in a

small town in Ohio. When in college, the three most important women in my life (my mom, grandmother, and great-grandmother) were all diagnosed with cancer. This led me to seek out a nursing position in oncology, and over time, I was able to be actively involved in their care. This experience taught me so much and led to the desire to do more to make the daily lives of people with cancer better. After obtaining a master’s in oncology and a postmaster’s nurse practitioner, an opportunity to work with Dr. M. Gilbert, a well-known caring physician who specialized in the care and treatment of patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors and a great mentor, became available, so my work with people with CNS tumors began.

After several years, I realized that the quality of life of the brain tumor patients and families was significantly impacted by the symptoms they experienced. Over 80% were unable to return to work from the time of diagnosis, and their daily lives (and those of their families) were often consumed with managing the neurologic and treatment-related symptoms. I realized that obtaining my PhD would be an important step to learn the skills I would need to try to find answers to solve the problems CNS tumor patients were facing.

At that time, many of the conceptual models identified solitary symptoms and their impact on the person. I learned from my experience and in caring for patients that symptoms seldom occurred in isolation and that the meaning the symptoms had for patients’ daily lives was important, as was learning about the patients’ perception of that impact. I developed a conceptual model to identify those relationships and guide my research (Armstrong, 2003). My focus since then has been on patient-centered outcomes research, focusing on the impact of symptoms on the illness trajectory, tolerance of therapy, and potential to influence survival. My work is never done in isolation. I have been fortunate to work with research teams, including those who work alongside me and important collaborators across disciplines and the world. Team research, in which the views of various disciplines are brought together, is important in every step of research—from the hypothesis to study design and finally interpretation of the results.

My work is interconnected, but I believe it can be categorized into three general areas:

1. Improving assessment and our understanding of the experience of patients with CNS tumors.

Patients with primary brain tumors are highly symptomatic, with implications for functional status, and are used in making treatment decisions. I led a team that developed the M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory for Brain Tumors (MDASI-BT) (Armstrong et al., 2005; Armstrong et al., 2006) and spinal cord tumors (MDASI-Spine) (Armstrong, Gning, et al., 2010). We have completed studies showing that symptoms are associated with tumor progression (Armstrong et al., 2011). We have also been able to quantify limitations of patients’ functional status (Armstrong et al., 2015), in a way that caregivers report is congruent with the patient, and have found that electronic technology (such as iPads) can be used for this (Armstrong et al., 2012). Our work with the Collaborative Ependymoma Research Organization (CERN, www.cern-foundation.org) has allowed us to reach out to patients with this rarer tumor to understand the natural history and impact of the disease and its treatment on patients around the world (Armstrong, Vera-Bolanos, et al., 2010; Armstrong, Vera-Bolanos, & Gilbert, 2011). Based on these surveys, we have

21http://www.cern-foundation.org

developed materials to inform patients and are launching an expansion of this project, in which we will evaluate risk factors (both based on history and genetics) for the occurrence of these tumors in both adults and children.

2. Incorporation of clinical outcomes assessment into brain tumor clinical trials.

Clinical trials often assess the impact of therapy on how the tumor appears on imaging or survival, but the impact on the person is often not assessed. I have been fortunate to work with Dr. M. Gilbert and Dr. J. Wefel to incorporate these outcomes into large clinical trials, providing clear evidence that it was feasible to incorporate patient outcomes measures and that the results of these evaluations could impact the interpretation of the clinical trial (Armstrong et al., 2013; Gilbert et al., 2014). As a result of my involvement in these efforts, I recently chaired a daylong workshop exploring the use of clinical outcomes assessments (COAs) in brain tumor trials, a workshop cosponsored by the FDA and the Jumpstarting Brain Tumor Drug Development (JSBTDD) consortia that also included members of the academic community, patient advocates, pharmaceutical industry, and the NIH. This successful workshop has resulted in a series of white papers that were recently published on the importance of including these in clinical trials (Armstrong, Bishof, et al., 2016; Helfer et al., 2016).

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