Insulin is a hormone which is responsible for the metabolism of glucose in blood. Insulin hormone helps in regulating the levels of glucose levels in blood. It is secreted by the liver in human body. Abnormal rise in blood glucose levels in blood is referred to as diabetes and it also invites various other complications. Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to the levels of glucose in blood. Pancreas makes insulin to correct the level in case it is higher. When there is not enough production of insulin, synthetic derivatives of insulin are taken to help lower the increased level of blood glucose. Insulin is a protein structure containing 51 amino acids. These amino acids are 2 polypeptide chains. One polypeptide chain containing 21 amino acids and other containing 30 amino acids. The structure of insulin is connected to each other by disulphide linkage.
Secretion of Insulin and its Regulation
Insulin is secreted by the following three mechanisms.
By glucagon â€“ by the action of G protein.
Somatostatin â€“ by G protein inhibitor
Acetylcholine â€“ phosphatidyl inositol and diacyl glycerol. The secretion of insulin is regulated by the following ways:
By the action of gastrointestinal tract and the action of various other hormones.
By the action of exogenous nutrients The exogenous nutrients include glucose, AA [Amino acids], and K [potassium]. These exogenous nutrients stimulate the secretion of insulin. Increase in glucose in blood increases the secretion of insulin. After a protein rich meal, secretion of insulin increases. Arginine and lysine are the most potent proteins. Gastrointestinal hormones increase the secretion of insulin. This causes increased levels of insulin and thus creates more insulin uptake and metabolism of insulin.
By the action of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system falls under the category of autonomous nervous system. The autonomic nervous system has effects on various function of body including the pancreas. The parasympathetic nervous system and sympathetic nervous system have opposite effects on the release of insulin from the pancreas [islets of Langerhans]. It is also been considered that the autonomic nervous system is a major factor in the regeneration of pancreas. This regeneration is related to carcinogenesis.
Sympathetic responses include: when stress is induced the sympathetic nervous system stimulates the pancreas to inhibit the release of insulin.
Parasympathetic responses include: upon feeding the parasympathetic nervous system stimulates the pancreas to secrete more insulin.
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