Integrating research and quality improvement processes

Integrating research, evidence-based practice, and quality improvement processes Geri LoBiondo-Wood, Judith Haber

Learning outcomes

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After reading this chapter, you should be able to do the following: • State the significance of research, evidence-based practice, and quality improvement (QI). • Identify the role of the consumer of nursing research. • Define evidence-based practice. • Define QI. • Discuss evidence-based and QI decision making. • Explain the difference between quantitative and qualitative research. • Explain the difference between the types of systematic reviews. • Identify the importance of critical reading skills for critical appraisal of research. • Discuss the format and style of research reports/articles. • Discuss how to use an evidence hierarchy when critically appraising research studies.

KEY TERMS

abstract

clinical guidelines consensus guidelines

critical appraisal critical reading

critique evidence-based guidelines

evidence-based practice integrative review

levels of evidence meta-analysis

meta-synthesis quality improvement

qualitative research quantitative research

research systematic review

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Go to Evolve at http://evolve.elsevier.com/LoBiondo/ for review questions, critiquing exercises, and additional research articles for practice in reviewing and critiquing.

We invite you to join us on an exciting nursing research adventure that begins as you read the first page of this chapter. The adventure is one of discovery! You will discover that the nursing research literature sparkles with pride, dedication, and excitement about this dimension of professional practice. As you progress through your educational program, you are taught how to ensure quality and safety in practice through acquiring knowledge of the various sciences and health care principles. A critical component of clinical knowledge is understanding research as it applies to practicing from a base of evidence.

Whether you are a student or a practicing nurse whose goal is to use research as the foundation of your practice, you will discover that research, evidence-based practice, and quality improvement (QI) positions our profession at the cutting edge of change and improvement in patient outcomes. You will also discover the cutting edge “who,” “what,” “where,” “when,” “why,” and “how” of nursing research, and develop a foundation of evidence-based practice knowledge and competencies that will equip you for your clinical practice.

Your nursing research adventure will be filled with new and challenging learning experiences that develop your evidence-based practice skills. Your critical thinking, critical reading, and clinical decision-making skills will expand as you develop clinical questions, search the research literature, evaluate the research evidence found in the literature, and make clinical decisions about applying the “best available evidence” to your practice. For example, you will be encouraged to ask important clinical questions, such as, “What makes a telephone education intervention more effective with one group of patients with a diagnosis of congestive heart failure but not another?” “What is the effect of computer learning modules on self-management of diabetes in children?” “What research has been conducted in the area of identifying barriers to breast cancer screening in African American women?” “What is the quality of studies conducted on telehealth?” “What nursing-delivered smoking cessation interventions are most effective?” This book will help you begin your adventure into evidence-based practice by developing an appreciation of research as the foundation for evidence-based practice and QI.

Nursing research, evidence-based practice, and quality improvement Nurses are challenged to stay abreast of new information to provide the highest quality of patient care (Institute of Medicine [IOM], 2011). Nurses are challenged to expand their “comfort zone” by offering creative approaches to old and new health problems, as well as designing new and innovative programs that make a difference in the health status of our citizens. This challenge can best be met by integrating rapidly expanding research and evidence-based knowledge about biological, behavioral, and environmental influences on health into the care of patients and their families.

It is important to differentiate between research, evidence-based practice, and QI. Research is the systematic, rigorous, critical investigation that aims to answer questions about nursing phenomena. Researchers follow the steps of the scientific process, outlined in this chapter and discussed in detail in each chapter of this textbook. There are two types of research: quantitative and qualitative. The methods used by nurse researchers are the same methods used by other disciplines; the difference is that nurses study questions relevant to nursing practice. Published research studies are read and evaluated for use in clinical practice. Study findings provide evidence that is evaluated, and applicability to practice is used to inform clinical decisions.

Evidence-based practice is the collection, evaluation, and integration of valid research evidence, combined with clinical expertise and an understanding of patient and family values and preferences, to inform clinical decision making (Sackett et al., 2000). Research studies are gathered from the literature and assessed so that decisions about application to practice can be made, culminating in nursing practice that is evidence based. ➤ Example: To help you understand the importance of evidence-based practice, think about the systematic review and meta-analysis from Al-Mallah and colleagues (2015), which assessed the impact of nurse-led clinics on the mortality and morbidity of patients with cardiovascular disease (see Appendix E). Based on their synthesis of

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the literature, they put forth several conclusions regarding the implications for practice and further research for nurses working in the field of cardiovascular care.

QI is the systematic use of data to monitor the outcomes of care processes as well as the use of improvement methods to design and test changes in practice for the purpose of continuously improving the quality and safety of health care systems (Cronenwett et al., 2007). While research supports or generates new knowledge, evidence-based practice and QI uses currently available knowledge to improve health care delivery. When you first read about these three processes, you will notice they have similarities. Each begins with a question. The difference is that in a research study the question is tested with a design appropriate to the question and specific methodology (i.e., sample, instruments, procedures, and data analysis) used to test the research question and contribute to new, generalizable knowledge. In the evidence-based practice and QI processes, a question is used to search the literature for already completed studies in order to bring about improvements in care.

All nurses share a commitment to the advancement of nursing science by conducting research and using research evidence in practice. Research promotes accountability, which is one of the hallmarks of the nursing profession and a fundamental concept of the American Nurses Association (ANA) Code for Nurses (ANA, 2015). There is a consensus that the research role of the baccalaureate and master’s graduate calls for critical appraisal skills. That is, nurses must be knowledgeable consumers of research, who can evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of research evidence and use existing standards to determine the merit and readiness of research for use in clinical practice. Therefore, to use research for an evidence-based practice and to practice using the highest quality processes, you do not have to conduct research; however, you do need to understand and appraise the steps of the research process in order to read the research literature critically and use it to inform clinical decisions.

As you venture through this text, you will see the steps of the research, evidence-based practice, and QI processes. The steps are systematic and relate to the development of evidence-based practice. Understanding the processes that researchers use will help you develop the assessment skills necessary to judge the soundness of research studies.

throughout the chapters, terminology pertinent to each step is identified and illustrated with examples. Five published studies are found in the appendices and used as examples to illustrate significant points in each chapter. Judging the study’s strength and quality, as well as its applicability to practice, is key. Before you can judge a study, it is important to understand the differences among studies. There are different study designs that you will see as you read through this text and the appendices. There are standards not only for critiquing the soundness of each step of a study, but also for judging the strength and quality of evidence provided by a study and determining its applicability to practice.

This chapter provides an overview of research study designs and appraisal skills. It introduces the overall format of a research article and provides an overview of the subsequent chapters in the book. It also introduces the QI and evidence-based practice processes, a level of evidence hierarchy model, and other tools for helping you evaluate the strength and quality of research evidence. These topics are designed to help you read research articles more effectively and with greater understanding, so that you can make evidence-based clinical decisions and contribute to quality and cost-effective patient outcomes.

Types of research: Qualitative and quantitative Research is classified into two major categories: qualitative and quantitative. A researcher chooses between these categories based on the question being asked. That is, a researcher may wish to test a cause-and-effect relationship, or to assess if variables are related, or may wish to discover and understand the meaning of an experience or process. A researcher would choose to conduct a qualitative research study if the question is about understanding the meaning of a human experience such as grief, hope, or loss. The meaning of an experience is based on the view that meaning varies and is subjective. The context of the experience also plays a role in qualitative research. That is, the experience of loss as a result of a miscarriage would be different than the experience of losing a parent.

Qualitative research is generally conducted in natural settings and uses data that are words or text rather than numeric to describe the experiences being studied. Qualitative studies are guided by research questions, and data are collected from a small number of subjects, allowing an in-depth

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study of a phenomenon. ➤ Example: vanDijk et al. (2016) explored how patients assign a number to their postoperative pain experience (see Appendix C). Although qualitative research is systematic in its method, it uses a subjective approach. Data from qualitative studies help nurses understand experiences or phenomena that affect patients; these data also assist in generating theories that lead clinicians to develop improved patient care and stimulate further research. Highlights of the general steps of qualitative studies and the journal format for a qualitative article are outlined in Table 1.1. Chapters 5 through 7 provide an in-depth view of qualitative research underpinnings, designs, and methods.

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