The structure of kidneys differs in terrestrial and marine mammals and marine mammals have specialized types of kidneys that help them in surviving in the extreme salty environment because the main function of the kidney is to regulate the balance of electrolytes and water in our body. In order cetaceans which includes whales and dolphins and in order Pinnipedia which includes walrus, sea lions, and seals the structure of the kidney is the same as bears. Their kidney is made up of rediculi and lobes which are a hundred in number, In each lobe one medullary pyramid and discrete cortical tissue is present. In calyx medullary Pyramid is inserted. In order, sire is superficial lobulate kidney is present because in their kidneys cortex is continuous and true ranunculi absent.
Urine concentration of marine mammals:
The concentration of Urine of marine mammals in general (with a few exceptions) do not use seawater as a common behavior, they can produce urine with a greater osmolality than the water of the sea. Also, mammals that live in freshwater habitats can concentrate their urine for counteracting hyperosmotic environments, suggesting that marine mammals, more likely to be found in freshwater than marine environments, retain their ability to concentrate urine. A positive correlation between plasma osmolality and urine in marine mammals is observed which means urine osmolality increases in response with increased plasma osmolality. Marine mammals were originally believed to drink seawater because the osmolarity of their urine is higher than seawater, and it is believed that their urine consists primarily of sodium and chloride ions. For marine mammals to receive a net positive advantage in solute-free water after consuming seawater, they must release sodium and chloride ions in higher concentrations than in the water.
Metabolic water and drinking:
Water balance in ocean us kept up because of pre-shaped water present in their eating routine. Marine well evolved creatures are vertebrates living in the water climate. whose presence relies upon the seas and other marine biological systems. This incorporates creatures, for example, whales seals, manatees polar bears, and ocean otters. They are a casual gathering that is just worried about their reliance on the marine climate for endurance and food. The variation of marine vertebrates to an oceanic way of life shifts significantly from one animal categories to another. Sirenians and cetaceans live in water and are completely oceanic. Ocean lions and seals are semi-amphibian; They live the vast majority of their time in the water however should get back to land for fundamental exercises like rearing, mating, and shedding.
Marine mammals have a variety of anatomical and Physiological properties to help them meet the unique challenges of aquatic life. Some of these characteristics are specific to species. There are also many features both anatomical and physiological which help marine mammals to live in the marine aquatic environment. Some of these features are very species-specific. Marine mammals have developed several functions for efficient movements, such as torpedo-shaped bodies to reduce air resistance.
Marine mammals specialize in thermoregulation using circulation correction with thick or fat hair (counter-current exchange).
Blubber is present on the skin of marine animals which is used for insulation.
Tail fluke and dorsal fin are for propulsion and balance.
Reduced attachment and large size are to prevent heat loss.
Modified limbs for locomotion and control
Marine mammals can dive for a long time.
Whales and Pinnipeds have large, complex vascular systems that store oxygen to aid deep dives.
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