Knowledge of parenting and child development

Today’s Session Risk & Resilience


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A Tale of Two Zipcodes


Forms of Stress

Center on the Developing Child



Physical abuse is the use of physical force, such as hitting, kicking, shaking, burning, or other shows of force against a child.

Sexual abuse involves engaging a child in sexual acts. It includes behaviors such as fondling, penetration, and exposing a child to other sexual activities.

Emotional abuse refers to behaviors that harm a child’s self-worth or emotional well-being. Examples include name calling, shaming, rejection, withholding love, and threatening.

Neglect is the failure to meet a child’s basic physical and emotional needs. These needs include housing, food, clothing, education, and access to medical care


From Essentials for Childhood Framework, page 5:


A report of child abuse is made every ten seconds

More than four children die every day as a result of child abuse.

More than 90% of juvenile sexual abuse victims know their perpetrator in some way.

Child abuse occurs at every socioeconomic level, across ethnic and cultural lines, within all religions and at all levels of education.

“Children are just as likely to be abused or neglected in wealthy homes as in poor ones. However, wealthier white families are simply not under the same scrutiny that brings families of color of low socioeconomic status to the attention of child welfare authorities.”*

About 30% of abused and neglected children will later abuse their own children, continuing the horrible cycle of abuse.

The estimated annual cost of child abuse and neglect in the United States for 2008 is $124 billion.



Selected Adverse Experiences

1. Lived with a parent or guardian who got divorced or separated;

2. Lived with a parent or guardian who died;

3. Lived with a parent or guardian who served time in jail or prison;

4. Lived with anyone who was mentally ill or suicidal, or severely depressed for more than a couple of weeks;

5. Lived with anyone who had a problem with alcohol or drugs;

6. Witnessed a parent, guardian, or other adult in the household behaving violently toward another (e.g., slapping, hitting, kicking, punching, or beating each other up);

7. Was ever the victim of violence or witnessed any violence in his or her neighborhood; and

8. Experienced economic hardship “somewhat often” or “very often” (i.e., the family found it hard to cover costs of food and housing).

Significant adversity impairs development in the first 3 years…..the more adversity, the greater the odds of a developmental delay…..risk factors such as poverty, caregiver mental illness, child maltreatment, single parent, low maternal education.


As the number of ACEs increases so does the risk for the following:

Alcoholism and alcohol abuse

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


Fetal death

Health-related quality of life

Illicit drug use

Ischemic heart disease

Liver disease

Poor work performance

Financial stress

Risk for intimate partner violence



Multiple sexual partners

Sexually transmitted diseases


Suicide attempts

Unintended pregnancies

Early initiation of smoking

Early initiation of sexual activity

Adolescent pregnancy

Risk for sexual violence

Poor academic achievement



Risk Factors


life stress

mental/physical health

school problems

family relationship conflict


Behavior, mental/physical health

Caregiver mental/physical health

Impaired child/caregiver relationship/family conflict

Substance Abuse

Social Isolation




Violence in community

Protective Factors


Family System Strengths

Supportive child/caregiver relationship

Coping strategies

Social support

Readiness for change



Cultural roots

Community connections

Economic stability

From : Center for the Study of Social Policy

Five Protective Factors Key to Family Well-Being:

Knowledge of parenting & child development

Parental resilience

Social connections

Concrete supports for families

Social & emotional competence of children


ACES Study

ACES are strongly related to risk factors for disease and life-course well-being

17,000 participants

75% White

67% some college or college graduates

https:// [female survey]


https :// en

range from physical, emotional, or sexual abuse to parental divorce or the incarceration of a parent or guardian.


*Episode 5, DNA is not Destiny

Thrive Washington /




The Reading…..

What questions does this raise for you?


What is significant about this text?


How might it influence your understanding of children and families?


Resilience can be defined as the ability to thrive, mature, and increase competence in the face of adverse circumstances.

Think about yourself…..

Take a few moments to write about a time that was difficult or challenging.


How did the concept of ‘resilience’ play in to that moment?


Resilience: positive outcomes in the face of adversity

Not just in the person…but in the interaction between the person and the environment


Resilience…. The single most common factor for children who develop resilience is at least one stable and committed relationship with a supportive parent, caregiver, or other adult*.

A Tale of Two Zip Codes

https ://


Harvard paper on resilience* /

Kauai Longitudinal Study

698 children, born 1955

Monitored development at ages 1, 2, 10, 18, 32, & 40

30% born & raised in poverty, families troubled by chronic discord, reared by mothers with less than 8th grade education

2/3 developed learning/behavior problems by age 10, & had delinquency records or mental health problems by age 18

BUT 1/3 grew into competent, confident, & caring adults



3 Factors of Resiliency

Within the individual

Within the family

In the community


Most of the 2/3 had “staged a recovery” by age 40

Harlem Children’s Zone

Program Models that serve as protective factors

Promise Neighborhoods Kyka4YfqeqQ

Childhaven (in Seattle)

Harlem Children’s Zone xN6xc_w *** ete1jRRPAFU


Watch and listen for…….(exit slip)

What messages can communities provide for children & families?

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