Today’s Session Risk & Resilience
A Tale of Two Zipcodes
Forms of Stress
Center on the Developing Child
Physical abuse is the use of physical force, such as hitting, kicking, shaking, burning, or other shows of force against a child.
Sexual abuse involves engaging a child in sexual acts. It includes behaviors such as fondling, penetration, and exposing a child to other sexual activities.
Emotional abuse refers to behaviors that harm a child’s self-worth or emotional well-being. Examples include name calling, shaming, rejection, withholding love, and threatening.
Neglect is the failure to meet a child’s basic physical and emotional needs. These needs include housing, food, clothing, education, and access to medical care
From Essentials for Childhood Framework, page 5: https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/essentials_for_childhood_framework.pdf
A report of child abuse is made every ten seconds
More than four children die every day as a result of child abuse.
More than 90% of juvenile sexual abuse victims know their perpetrator in some way.
Child abuse occurs at every socioeconomic level, across ethnic and cultural lines, within all religions and at all levels of education.
“Children are just as likely to be abused or neglected in wealthy homes as in poor ones. However, wealthier white families are simply not under the same scrutiny that brings families of color of low socioeconomic status to the attention of child welfare authorities.”*
About 30% of abused and neglected children will later abuse their own children, continuing the horrible cycle of abuse.
The estimated annual cost of child abuse and neglect in the United States for 2008 is $124 billion.
Selected Adverse Experiences
1. Lived with a parent or guardian who got divorced or separated;
2. Lived with a parent or guardian who died;
3. Lived with a parent or guardian who served time in jail or prison;
4. Lived with anyone who was mentally ill or suicidal, or severely depressed for more than a couple of weeks;
5. Lived with anyone who had a problem with alcohol or drugs;
6. Witnessed a parent, guardian, or other adult in the household behaving violently toward another (e.g., slapping, hitting, kicking, punching, or beating each other up);
7. Was ever the victim of violence or witnessed any violence in his or her neighborhood; and
8. Experienced economic hardship “somewhat often” or “very often” (i.e., the family found it hard to cover costs of food and housing).
Significant adversity impairs development in the first 3 years…..the more adversity, the greater the odds of a developmental delay…..risk factors such as poverty, caregiver mental illness, child maltreatment, single parent, low maternal education.
As the number of ACEs increases so does the risk for the following:
Alcoholism and alcohol abuse
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Health-related quality of life
Illicit drug use
Ischemic heart disease
Poor work performance
Risk for intimate partner violence
Multiple sexual partners
Sexually transmitted diseases
Early initiation of smoking
Early initiation of sexual activity
Risk for sexual violence
Poor academic achievement
family relationship conflict
Behavior, mental/physical health
Caregiver mental/physical health
Impaired child/caregiver relationship/family conflict
Violence in community
Family System Strengths
Supportive child/caregiver relationship
Readiness for change
From : Center for the Study of Social Policy
Five Protective Factors Key to Family Well-Being:
Knowledge of parenting & child development
Concrete supports for families
Social & emotional competence of children
ACES are strongly related to risk factors for disease and life-course well-being
67% some college or college graduates
https:// www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/acestudy/pdf/fhhflorna.pdf [female survey]
range from physical, emotional, or sexual abuse to parental divorce or the incarceration of a parent or guardian.
*Episode 5, DNA is not Destiny
What questions does this raise for you?
What is significant about this text?
How might it influence your understanding of children and families?
Resilience can be defined as the ability to thrive, mature, and increase competence in the face of adverse circumstances.
Think about yourself…..
Take a few moments to write about a time that was difficult or challenging.
How did the concept of ‘resilience’ play in to that moment?
Resilience: positive outcomes in the face of adversity
Not just in the person…but in the interaction between the person and the environment
Resilience…. The single most common factor for children who develop resilience is at least one stable and committed relationship with a supportive parent, caregiver, or other adult*.
A Tale of Two Zip Codes
Harvard paper on resilience*
Kauai Longitudinal Study
698 children, born 1955
Monitored development at ages 1, 2, 10, 18, 32, & 40
30% born & raised in poverty, families troubled by chronic discord, reared by mothers with less than 8th grade education
2/3 developed learning/behavior problems by age 10, & had delinquency records or mental health problems by age 18
BUT 1/3 grew into competent, confident, & caring adults
3 Factors of Resiliency
Within the individual
Within the family
In the community
Most of the 2/3 had “staged a recovery” by age 40
Harlem Children’s Zone
Program Models that serve as protective factors
Childhaven (in Seattle)
Harlem Children’s Zone
Watch and listen for…….(exit slip)
What messages can communities provide for children & families?
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