Taste Buds and Receptors
Papillae cover the surface of the tongue on which most of the receptors are found while some are present on the back of the throat and the line of the roof. Papillae are of various types, based on their structure. Filiform papillae are tactile and are located across the tongue. They help the tongue to move substances by providing friction and does not contain any taste cells. Fungiform papillae, on the other hand, have receptors for pressure and temperature, and each contains 1-8 taste buds. It situated on the anterior two-third of the tongue. More than 100 taste buds are present on the large circumvallate papillae which are located near the posterior margin of the tongue, are the largest papillae on the tongue and form an inverted â€˜Vâ€™. Foliate papillae, which also contain more than 100 taste buds, are leaf- like in appearance and are situated along the sides of the tongue. On some 10,000 taste buds, millions of receptors are present. A molecule when binds to a taste receptor, the electrical charge in the receptor cell changes due to the process, which triggers the release of a neurotransmitter. In a nearby neuron, an electrical impulse is initiated due to this messenger chemical, and a signal is carried by it to the brain.
These are themselves neurons, which makes them unique among all the sense. The neurons of olfactory are bipolar neurons referring to neurons with two processes emerging from the cell. A single dendrite is present in each neuron, from which 5-20 filaments, called cilia, are extending in which the odorant molecules get trapped. A thicker fiber, called an axon, is also present. These axons connect the olfactory receptors to the brain directly. A tiny electric impulse is generated whenever a detectable molecule attaches to an olfactory receptor. As soon as these currents reach the brain, the odor is quickly recognized (within 2-3 synapses, in a tenth of a second). About approximately 400 olfactory receptors are present in humans that help in sensing nearly about 10,000 different odors.
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