Patient education. There are several methods of offering patient education. One of the most cost-effective means is face-to-face counseling. This technique lets provider’s answer questions without delay in communication. According to Magadza et al. (2009), a pamphlet is a cost-effective way to provide education in summary. Magadza et al. (2009) evaluated the patient’s understanding of HTN using motivational intervention questions. In their study, 45 patients were interviewed and completed a questionnaire. This study showed that educational intervention could positively impact patient adherence. The participants received a questionnaire pre- and post-education. The questionnaire was composed of four parts: the concept of HTN, antihypertensive medication, adherence to medication, and diet and lifestyle recommendations. In their case-controlled study, they found motivational interviewing and questionnaires increased participant knowledge about HTN and the importance of medication. These findings suggest that patient education provides patients with the opportunity to have questions answered, thus improving adherence to education.
Delichatsios and Weity (2005) performed a study on providing participants with resources to improve dietary habits. The resource was a dietary patient education booklet that focused on fruits and vegetables, red meat, and dairy foods. Booklets were mailed to patients’ homes. The patient then had two motivational counseling sessions by telephone at two-week and four-month intervals. For the control group, their servings were increased by an average of 1.1 servings per day compared to 0.3 serving per day for the intervention group. The finding showed no changes in the amount of red and processed meats.
The intervention group increased fiber by 1 gram per day. The study concluded that 71% of the participants discussed the educational booklets with their primary care providers. This study addressed a lack of time in the primary care setting and alternative means of educating by mailing booklets and having telephonic follow up (Delichatsios & Weity, 2005).
Wong et al. (2015) performed a study on 556 Chinese patients who were newly diagnosed with hypertension. The participants received DASH-based dietary counseling tailored to a Chinese diet and were given 25-minute dietary counseling and DASH diet pamphlets. The outcome data were evaluated after six months and showed lower blood pressure. Wong et al. (2015) concluded that a self-monitoring tool that reinforces the implementation of dietary counseling would be more effective.
A literature review provides a more comprehensive understanding of the healthcare problem for this chapter. A review and synthesis of the current literature support the DASH as an evidence-based patient education tool used in the management of patients with HTN to improve patient outcomes. The DASH is an effective way to reduce blood pressure. Lifestyle modifications recommendations of diet and exercise can be difficult if patients are not given specific guidelines. Diet and lifestyle changes are more effective when healthcare providers give patients clear and concise guidance. The DASH intervention offers patients clear dietary guidance and assists with meal planning. The DASH can significantly impact on HTN especially in the African American population and should be used as a primary intervention to decrease HTN.
Hypertension continues to be a worldwide health problem. HTN is one of the most common conditions treated in primary care and can lead to myocardial infarction, stroke, renal failure, and death if not detected early and treated appropriately (Oza & Garcellano, 2015). Quantitative data suggests that HTN rates in African Americans is higher than any other ethnic group, and BP control remains inadequate in this population. The DASH dietary pattern can be easily educated and adopted by all population groups offering the most cost-effective intervention to serve as the primary and secondary prevention of elevated blood pressure and its complications (Saneei et al, 2014).
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