Plant structures differ between unicellular and multicellular types. Unicellular Plants are a single-celled organism, containing chlorophyll. Whereas, multicellular plants are made up of millions of cells. A multicellular plant structure is divided into two systems i.e. shoot system and root system and a unicellular plant body structure is considered as thallus.
Multicellular Plants â€“ structure and function
In a multicellular plant body, the shoot system consists of
Stem â€“ It gives support to the plant body, helps in the distribution of nutrients and water to the different parts of the body. In plants such as potato plants, the stem is also used to store food in the form of carbohydrates i.e. starch.
Stem contains xylem and phloem inside. Xylem is responsible for carrying water to the different parts of the plant whereas, Phloem carry food to the different parts of the plants. However, If the stem are green, they may also take part in photosynthesis. Meristems cell produces new living tissues. However, there stems can be divided into several types, like, aerial stem, underground stem, subaerial stem, submerged stem. It performs specific function accordingly.
Leaves â€“ It is a site where photosynthesis occurs. Leaves contain chlorophyll pigments which appear green to us. All leaves have the same and basic structure. They possess midribs, vein, an edges and petiole. Functionally, they convert light energy to chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis. Here, photo means light and synthesis means to process. Leaves take carbon dioxide in and release oxygen to the environment and by this process of releasing and absorbing of oxygen and carbon dioxide, plants also play a significant role in maintaining atmosphere. A leaf uses sunlight, water, minerals, and carbon dioxide in a raw form the environment. Then, it converts it into chemical energy in the form of NADPH+ and ATP. Then this energy is further utilized in formation of food in the form of carbohydrate i.e. starch.
Flower- It is the reproductive part of the plant, involved in the reproduction process. A flower allows the mating of male and female gametes. A flower structure consists of petals, sepals, male reproductive part, female reproductive part, ovary, thalamus, and stalk.
corolla – a group of petals.
calyx – a group of sepals.
Androecium- male reproductive parts, collectively.
Gynoecium- female reproductive parts, collectively.
Fruits â€“ The prepared food is stored in the form of starch in the fruit. The fruit contains seeds which germinate into a new plant. The primary function of the fruit is to protect the seed contained inside. When seed germinates, the fruit provides food to the new plant; thus, the fruit serves as stored food or energy for the new plantlets. Although for animals such as herbivores, omnivores or humans, fruits, vegetables, and other plant products serve as primary sources of food for us.
In a multicellular plant body, the root system consists mainly of roots. Roots perform two main basic functions that are:
Roots – Roots are vascular system of the plant body, present below the soil. However, there are several types of roots, such as tap roots, fibrous roots, adventitious roots, aerial root, submerged roots etc. The basic and the primary function of roots is to provide support, anchor the plant in the soil and absorb water and nutrients from the soil. However, in some cases such as carrots, sweet potatoes, beetroots, the root of these plants serves as storage of food and water hence, it acts as the storage section of the plant.
Unicellular Plants â€“ structure and function.
Unlike multicellular plants, the unicellular plant body cannot be differentiated into true stem and roots. This type of plant body is referred to as thallus. Instead of true roots, it contains rhizoids. The rhizoids act as a holdfast to hold firmly. Although, they contain a green pigment called chlorophyll. Hence they also perform photosynthesis.
Thallus â€“ Thallus is a plant body which cannot be differentiated into stem, leaves or true root. They do not have true vascular system. They are non-motile living plants. No tissue organs can be recognized. Instead of true root, leaves or stem, they have analogous structures to perform the same functions. The structures which resemble thallus are referred to as thalloid. Some common plants with thallus body are Algae, Fungi, liverworts etc.
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