Observable strategies used by learner

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Four ̶ Quadrant Model of
Facilitated Learning (4QM)
HLSC 420
Summer 2021
What is the 4QM? • An approach to teaching and
learning that guides
occupational therapy practice.
• It is based on contemporary
theories of occupational
therapy, psychology and
pedagogy
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The Four-Quadrant
Model of Facilitated
Learning
Acquisitional Frame of
Reference
Maximize occupational
performance
• Establish, enhance and/or restore
skills that enable the client to
participate occupations
Draws on classic
learning theories such
as Skinner, Bandura
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Approaches to Teaching
• Compensatory: alter the environment
• Adaptive: change the form of the task in order
to achieve the “just right challenge” • Teaching–learning: focus on structuring the
intervention to enable mastery of the skill in
its current form and in its existing
environment.
Lev Vygotsky
Developmental
Psychologist
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The Four-Quadrant Model of
Facilitated Learning
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Quadrant 1 – Task Specification
• Facilitator Initiated
• Direct Strategies
• Provide the learner with specific information about the task.
• Explicit instruction and explanation: Do this; Do it
this way
• Demonstration: linked to specific teaching points
• Physical Patterning: manipulate the learner through
the process typically to establish a motor pattern.
• Lower Order Questions: assess learner’s
understanding of task and/or performance; What do
you need to do next?
Quadrant 2 – Decision
Making
• Facilitator Initiated
• Indirect Strategies
• Engage the learner in the decision-making process.
• Higher order questions: evoke higher level cognitive
skills; What could you do differently? I wonder why that
happened.
• Feedback: verbal, gestural or symbolic information
(e.g. rating scale, graph) providing critique of
performance
• Physical prompts: facilitator helps initiates motor
action and learner completes
• Non-verbal prompts: gestural, symbolic and sensory
input provided by facilitator (e.g., eye gaze, facial
expressions, hand and finger movements, forms of
touch)
• Think aloud modeling facilitator describes own
decision- making process.
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Quadrant 3 – Key Points
• Learner Initiated
• Direct Strategies
• Observable strategies used by learner to guide
performance.
• Priming: physical or verbal rehearsal or practice that organizes
a response to time or contextual demands
• Mnemonics: aid recall of key features, processes, facts or
procedures • Verbal self-instruction: Thinking out loud
• Visual cues: mind maps, graphic organizers, visual displays,
computer-assisted instruction (e.g., videos, pictures, etc.)
• Kinesthetic self-prompting: touching a picture cue to orient
to it; tapping desk to direct eye gaze, etc.
Quadrant 4 – Autonomy
• Learner Initiated
• Indirect Strategies
• Learners do not exhibit signs of self-prompting during successful performance
• Mental imagery: process that occurs in learner’s mind to support
decision making & planning
• Self-instruction: inner speech to direct the learner’s actions
• Self-questioning: internal dialogue to analyze information and
regulate the use of cognitive strategies
• Self-monitoring: learner analyzes own effectiveness, critiques
performance and assesses the need for modification
• Problem solving: planning, judgment and reasoning to overcome
difficulties in performance
• Automaticity: performance appears habitual, routine, consistent and
predictable, not requiring conscious thought
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Linking
Strategies
Incomplete statements, partial
demonstrations, or physical
assistance that challenge the
learner for completion (e.g. ‘Next
you need to … (pause)’). Reflects
characteristics of both Q1 and Q2.
Leading
Facilitator orientates clients to
the need for self-regulated
learning strategies. Reflects
characteristics of both Q2 and Q3.
Orienting
Subvocalization; sequence of
picture prompts is chunked into a
single picture that represents
multiple steps in task
performance. Reflects
characteristics of both Q3 and Q4.
Fading
Putting on a Seatbelt
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Which quadrants are being used?
Which quadrants are being used?
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