Primary police training academics operating in America

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Annotated Bibliography about Law Enforcement Training
Leal, Jim. “E-Learning and Online Education: Implications for the Future of Law
Enforcement Training.” World Future Review (World Future Society), vol. 1, no. 3, June
2009, pp. 22–28.
This is a journal from the Command college futures study project that examined law
enforcement’s issues. The purpose was to foresee multiple possible scenarios that required
strategic planning. Diverse methods were used to develop alternatives for leaders and planners to
face the potential future environment. The articles address the need for e-learning (distance
education) in law enforcement for various reasons such as; cost-saving benefits, flexibility in the
location, and the easiness to standardize training. Kentucky’s common wealth offers all officers a
requirement to undertake forty hours of yearly in-service training to maintain their professional
certification. The courses are certified by the Kentucky Law Enforcement Council. Currently, no
virtual learning is carried out in training forcing various discussions due to distance education.
Meanwhile, various barriers can be experienced in implementing the law enforcement online
training of officers, including both students’ and trainers’ barriers and technological barriers.
However, the benefits of implementing distance learning outweigh the barriers that could be
experienced. This will enable the training to shift from traditional training grounds to online
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The findings concluded that with over a hundred million Americans taking continuing
education, all factors that there will be an increased growth on online education. The study is
relevant since it indicated that by 2015 the main form of education would be virtual, clearly
evident, especially during the Covid 19 pandemic. Many law enforcement officers are aging, and
hence a high number of them are retiring and require the hiring young generation in the
workforce. Some training agencies undertake police academics use video game technology and
firearms training simulators which are virtual to provide more interactive and realistic learning.
This decade is characterized by several shifts in police demographics and ensuring efficient
distance learning. The study concludes that the training should consider the young generations’
preference in technological training and educational platforms (Leal p.27, 2009). This source
helps my study in law enforcement since it indicates that law enforcement trainers and educators
should embrace technology and online social networking learning styles to meet the required
training for multiple generations.
Lee, Hoon, et al. “An Examination of Police use of Force Utilizing Police Training and
Neighborhood Contextual Factors: A Multilevel Analysis.” Policing, vol. 33, no. 4, 2010,
pp. 681-702. ProQuest
The journal was published by Emerald Group publishing limited. It examines the police officers’
use of force by looking at the issue-based, individual, and training features in the various police
agencies as samples. The study showed that agencies that used greater force had longer in-service
training and examined the organizational and contextual factors with the individual variables in
the different police agencies. The individual factors include gender, race, and race. The main
findings were that in-service training hours are a significant factor determining the police’s level
of use of force. The study analyzed 8,798 arrest cases within the eight police
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agencies. It confirmed that police resistance resulted in the police use of force, and the arrested
race did not determine the law enforcement. The interaction between white police officers and the
non-white arrested produced a statistically insignificant figure indicating no relationship between
race and force use. The suggestion was those law officers who work in regions constituting
greater rates of use of force situations. They tend to copy the same in areas with high violence
crimes necessitating using a weapon and empty hand control tactics based on the statistics: a
p-value of 0.10. Police officers are likely to apply weapons approximately three times and five
times use of empty hand control when they face resistance from the individuals they arrest, where
many males are seen to be resistant.
The study also indicates that there are corresponding more elevated police force levels in high
unemployment areas. However, deciding on a particular use of force in law enforcement activity
is not determined by the academy level of training as indicated by the cross-sectional data. This
study’s limitations are that it does not represent the USA; the level-2 variables were excluded
from the HLM analytical model because of their size (Lee, Hoon, et al., p.681). The Paper is of
significance in my study since it brings up the gap that I should address on the police training
programs and administrative factors.
Mayse, James. “Constables Little-used in Region Lack of Training in Law Enforcement
Makes Sheriffs Wary to Call.” Messenger-Inquirer Nov 19, 2006: 1. ProQuest. 12 Mar.
Owensboro publishes the newspaper. The Paper states that some officials do not consider having
constables and deputy constables since they are not essential in law enforcement training.
However, in many counties, deputy sheriffs have resulted in non-reliance on the constables, who
eventually are not called upon to undergo the law enforcement training. However, some
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constables take credit for their roles, especially in dangerous situations, which allowed the deputy
sheriffs to attend to other calls. Many regions do not call upon the constables to listen to their
issues. Therefore the law enforcement powers accorded to them are not executed since they do
not carry the law enforcement duties. This is specifically evident in the Owensboro region. The
study shows that the constables are not used since they do not have law enforcement training;
hence they do not perform any official tasks with the deputy sheriffs. Under state law, no training
is required to be a constable or sheriff. However, the deputy sheriffs receive the law enforcement
training and other persons under the sheriff who are not exempted from the training. This is
because it would require the constables to spend several months in the police academy. The only
option to train is to carry it within 19 weeks, but the influence is paying the law enforcement
trainers. Many instances are first reported to the sheriff, and later the constables come after in the
scenes since they are from a different agency. The constables are associated with serving papers
for the attorney general and undertaking traffic control; hence law enforcement training is not
The study, however, does not give relevant reasons as to why the constables should not receive
training and work handily with the sheriffs and their deputies. This Paper is essential in my study
since it indicates the effects of jurisdiction overlap between the sheriff’s office, county constables,
state highway patrol, and law enforcement agencies to the department’s training to handle the
relevant criminal matters.
McBride, J. T. “Lack of Training.” Law & Order 62.3 (2014): 6. ProQuest. 12 Mar. 2021.
Hendon Publishing Company publishes the trade journal. The study addresses that many
American police officers’ current training needs are not being addressed adequately as they
should be undertaken. The Bureau of Justice Statistics pointed out that six hundred and fifty state
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and local law enforcement primary police training academics operating in America only offer
relatively little basic training to recruits. The local unit of government is entitled to in-service
training right after over 18,000 recruits are hired by the country’s relevant law enforcement
agencies. An estimate of the in-service costs is hard to calculate, but the experts estimate that
billions are directed into the activity. Some agencies use extensive training facilities, whereas the
smaller departments are forced to use whatever little training resources they have to equip the
skills needed for their staff. The journal shows that the quality of training entailed in law
enforcement depends on the agency’s budget restraints, instructor quality, adequacy of training
aids, topic popularity, practical exercises, and other factors. It also addresses the most critical
police training aspect. An American police officer may be exceptionally well trained or have
some deficiency in the required skills to handle a given situation. The ultimate finding is that the
proficiency of the police officers involved in the day-to-day encounters with the public is often
determined by the quality of the contact where well-trained officers handle various situations
In contrast, poorly trained personnel may be costly in several ways hence incompetent.
The preliminary training results in poor policing, which destroys the mutual trust with the public,
which requires money and energy to build and maintain. In 2011, New York City paid over 185
million dollars in response to the lawsuits against police officers. Hence, Los Angeles and
Baltimore, which have lower amounts paid, indicate the annual cases against officers’ amounts
spent are significantly high. The study recommends community-oriented policing as a style that
can work effectively when the officers are well trained in the basic ComPol dictations. The
journal concludes that the contact quality made by the police is the essential factor in American
policing. The journal concludes that progress is only possible if all stakeholders are effectively
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involved are and willing to work together towards making all the activities in law enforcement
better. This study will help me factor out changes that should be implemented to pursue better
relations between the public and the police in the community.
Scuro, Joseph E., Jr. “Civil Liability for Failure to Train.” Law & Order 50.12 (2002):
12-4. ProQuest, 12 Mar. 2021.
Hendson Publishing Company published the above trade journal. In 1979, the state and federal
courts began to impose civil liability against law enforcement agencies and public entities on
sworn officers’ conduct for the failure to train them well. Some municipalities were held
accountable for using deadly force and defended that improved training could be very costly. The
United States Supreme Court provides a detailed legal standard used to evaluate the law
enforcement agencies conduct and actions, the various training procedures, or lack of training in
the operational areas in the review of negligent failure to train officers. Hence, the courts
determine the monetary damages and civil liability due to any particular agency’s official
activities. It also uses the standards to determine if negligence for failure to train is evident or
whether the legally acceptable standards of care are kept in the law enforcement training methods
by undertaking various tests.
The study’s main findings are that experience, previous training, expertise, and other professional
skills are essential factors determining officers’ reasonable suspicion related to investigative
detention and interview. The elements can also be used in strategies in training methodology
emulated along with the failure to train. The journal states that recent decisions portray the
requirement to be mindful of the public entities’ legal trends since they are accountable and liable
for civil damages due to failure to train when a court undertakes the test. However, the study did
not address who should be held responsible if the training meets the acceptable standards. This
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study will help me address that training and education technology will address the civil law
enforcement actions and the conscientious efforts in designing and implementing competent,
result-oriented, and job-related training, which would result in minimal civil liability cases.
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Works Cited
Leal, Jim. “E-learning and online education: Implications for the future of law
enforcement training.” World Future Review 1.3 (2009): 22-28.
Lee, Hoon, et al. “An examination of police use of force utilizing police training and
neighborhood contextual factors: A multilevel analysis.” Policing: An International
Journal of Police Strategies & Management (2010).
Mayse, James. “Constables Little-used in Region Lack of Training in Law Enforcement
Makes Sheriffs Wary to Call.” Messenger-Inquirer Nov 19, 2006: 1. ProQuest. 12 Mar.
McBride, J. T. “Lack of Training.” Law & Order 62.3 (2014): 6. ProQuest. 12 Mar. 2021.
Scuro, Joseph E., Jr. “Civil Liability for Failure to Train.” Law & Order 50.12 (2002):
12-4. ProQuest. 12 Mar. 2021.

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