Publication Manual of the American Psychological

Introduction

Students of – (-) are required to use the guidelines provided by the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) for preparing written assignments, except where otherwise noted. – has made APA templates and other resources available; therefore, students are not required to purchase the APA manual in general, though specific programs may require it.

This guide is a brief overview of APA Style. Additional examples can be found on the – Library’s Citing Sources in APA guide (https://libguides.-.edu/APA) and on the official APA Style website (https://apastyle.apa.org/).

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PLEASE NOTE:
The curriculum materials (Syllabus, Lectures/Readings, Resources, etc.) created and provided by – in online classrooms are prepared using an editorial format that relies on APA as a framework but that modifies some formatting criteria to better suit the nature and purpose of instructional materials. Students and faculty are advised that – course materials do not adhere strictly to APA format and should not be used as examples of correct APA format when preparing written work for class.

 

 

APA Format and Style

General

Academic writing, which is independent thought supported by reliable and relevant research, depends on the ability to integrate and cite the sources that have been consulted. Use APA style for all references, in-text citations, formatting, etc.

Use the student paper format unless directed otherwise by the assignment. Dissertations and related projects use their own formats with additional elements. Refer to the dissertation templates for those projects.

See the official APA Style website’s sample student paper (https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/paper-format/sample-papers) or the – APA Typing Template for examples of the formatting rules below.

Paper Format

  • Use standard-size paper of 8.5″ x 11″.
  • Margins should be 1″ all around (top, bottom, left, right).
  • Use Times New Roman 12-point font.
    • Although the 7th edition of the Publication Manual lists several choices for font and size, – has chosen Times New Roman 12-point font for student work.
  • Double-space all sections.
  • Indent and align text according to the rules for that section.
  • Include page numbers, beginning with the title page as page 1, in the upper right heading area of all pages. Use the automatic page numbering of a word-processing software.

Organization

The basic organization of an APA-style student paper includes the title page, abstract if required, body, and reference section, though students are encouraged to follow any specific directions given in their assignment.

Title Case vs Sentence Case

APA has two sets of rules for capitalization in titles and headings. Title case capitalizes all words over four letters, along with any word that would be capitalized in sentence case. Sentence case capitalizes proper nouns, acronyms, the first word of a title, and the word after a colon or em dash (the long dash, —). Title case is used on the title page, and for all titles, subtitles, and headings in the body—including the titles of figures or tables. Title case is also used for the titles of periodicals on the reference page. Sentence case is used for all titles other than periodical titles in the reference list.

 

 

Title Page

The title page provides basic information about the paper.

  • The title page is centered and double-spaced, including the blank lines left at the top before the title.
  • Place the title three lines down from the top of the page.
  • The title is bold and in title case.
  • Leave one blank line below the title.
  • Next list the name of each author. For two authors separate with “and.” For more than two, separate with commas and add “and” before the last author.
  • On the next line, list the college (such as College of Theology) and -, separated by a comma. Do not abbreviate.
  • On the next line, list the course number and name, for example: CWV-101: Christian Worldview.
  • On the next line, list the instructor’s name.
  • On the next line, list the assignment due date.

Abstract

The abstract covers the main points of the paper and is required only when listed in the assignment. Read the assignment instructions carefully to determine if the assignment requires an abstract.

  • Abstract is page 2 of the assignment.
  • The word “Abstract” should be bold, centered at the top of the page, and capitalized.
  • Abstracts should not exceed 250 words and should be a single paragraph.
  • Do not indent the abstract paragraph and place the text aligned left.

Body

The body will contain all of the author’s main points as well as detailed and documented support for those ideas.

  • The body begins on its own page.
  • The title of the paper should be bold, in title case, and centered at the top of the first page of the body.
  • The unlabeled introduction follows the title. Do not use “Introduction” as a label or heading.
  • Body paragraphs have a 0.5 inch indent at the start of each paragraph and are aligned left.
  • Headings:
    1. All headings are bold and in title case.
    2. Each heading is used as a subheading of the level above. If using only one level of heading, use Level 1, if using two levels, use 1 and 2, etc. Use at least two subheadings under a heading, or do not use any at all.
    3. Level 1 headings are centered, and the text begins on a new paragraph.
    4. Level 2 headings are flush left with no indent, and the text begins a new paragraph.
    5. Level 3 headings are flush left with no indent and in italics. The text begins a new paragraph.
    6. Level 4 headings are indented as a normal body paragraph and end with a period, after which the text follows on the same line.
    7. Level 5 headings are indented as a body paragraph and in italics, end with a period, and the text then follow on the same line.

References

The references page will contain a list of all sources actually cited in the paper.

  • References begin on a new page.
  • The word “References,” capitalized and bold, is centered at the top of the page.
  • Each reference has a hanging indent, where the first line of the reference is flush left, and the rest are indented 0.5 inches.
  • Include all, any, and only sources that were actually cited in the paper.
  • Arrange the sources in alphabetical order using the first word—usually a last name, but sometimes a title or organization’s name.

 

 

Style, Punctuation, and Mechanics

Pronouns

Write in first person to describe your own actions or personal reflections, for example: “I interviewed a kindergarten teacher.” Use “we” when describing the actions of the group for group projects. Do not refer to yourself in the third person.

Use “they” as a singular word to refer to anyone who uses that pronoun, or for whom the correct pronoun is unknown—do not use “s/he” and do not use either she or he alone to refer to a person of unknown gender. “They” as a singular still uses a plural verb. For example: “The author of this work is unknown. They are thought to be from Athens.”

Numbers

  • Use numerals for numbers 10 and above (12 of the subjects); for numbers representing times, dates, measurements, money, and ages (2-year-olds, 2 hr 15 min); for statistics and percentages (multiplied by 5, 5% of the sample).
  • Spell out numbers below 10, any numbers beginning a sentence, title, or heading (Forty-eight people responded. Ten subjects improved.), common fractions (one fifth of the class), and numbers over 10 in common phrases, such as those that form proper nouns (the Twelve Apostles).
  • For numbers denoting a specific place in a series, book, or table, always use the numeral when it comes after the noun (Table 3, Group 3, Step 2, page 32). If it come before the noun, the usual rules above apply (the sixth grade, the 12th grade, the second chapter, the 23rd chapter).

Abbreviations

Abbreviations shorten words, often using the first letters of the words in a name or title (acronyms).

  • Do not use periods inside abbreviations—FBI not F.B.I—except for standard Latin abbreviations.
  • Use Latin only in parentheticals, otherwise use the meaning. “For example” when in the text, (e.g., when in parentheses). However, use et al. in in-text citations, even in the text, and use v. in court case titles.
  • Most abbreviations must be spelled out completely on initial appearance in text. The abbreviation or acronym should appear in parentheses after that initial spelling out. If the first time appears in the in-text citation, use brackets for the abbreviation.
    • The American Psychological Association (APA) publishes a manual of style.
  • Use only the abbreviation after introducing it. Do not spell it out again in the body.
  • Do not spell out, even the first time, abbreviations listed in the dictionary (IQ), measurements (kg, mm), time measurements with numerals (20 min), standard statistics, or Latin abbreviations (et al.).

Spelling and Word Usage

Use Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary (https://www.merriam-webster.com) as a default for spelling words. The dictionary can also be used as a resource for hyphenation, capitalization, and so forth.

In-Text Punctuation

  • Use only one space after punctuation marks unless otherwise noted.
  • Use ellipses when omitting material within a quote.
  • Place a comma after the penultimate word in a series. For example: Your books, ball, and bat are under the bed.
  • If a compound word is not in Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary, use hyphens for clarity rather than omitting them.
  • Hyphenate compound adjectives that precede the noun they modify, except when the first word of the compound is an adverb ending in -ly. For example: role-playing technique, two-way analysis, middle-class families, widely used method.
  • Do not hyphenate a compound adjective if its meaning is established or it cannot be misread. For example: grade point average, health care management.

En Dash

The en dash (–) is used in numerical ranges and with compound adjectives of equal weight, for example author–date citation style. In particular, it is an en dash (–), not a hyphen (-), which appears in page number ranges in both in-text citations and references. On PC keyboards with a number pad, the en dash is Ctrl+Number – (the minus sign on the number pad, not the hyphen). On Mac, it is option+hyphen or Alt+hyphen. On PCs without a number pad, such as many laptops, you will need to select the en dash from the Symbol or Special Characters menu. Many word processing programs will allow you to assign the en dash to a keyboard shortcut.

 

 

In-Text Citations

In-text citations are used in the body of a paper to show which sources were used for particular material.

When you use material from a source, you need to document that source by using a citation and reference. All quotations, paraphrases, and summaries must be referenced. Using material from a source without citing that source is plagiarism. When paraphrasing, do not repeat the citation on every sentence of a paragraph if the source has not changed. Cite on the first sentence only. Cite again if you begin a new paragraph. Examples of the appropriate level of citation can be found in the APA Style website sample student paper (https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/paper-format/sample-papers)

Common knowledge does not need to be cited. General references to common software, tools, and websites also do not need a citation. For example: “We conducted a survey using Survey Monkey (https://www.surveymonkey.com)” or “The data was compiled in Excel.”

Full references for most examples in this section can be found in the reference examples section.

Citation Rules

  • In-text citations should note the author information, plus the publication year. List only the year, even if the reference will include the month or month and day.
  • For a work by one or two authors, cite last names followed by year on every reference. This citation can be placed at the end of the sentence, or it can be incorporated into the sentence.

Examples:

One key to writing more often is to plan time to write on a set schedule (Silva, 2018).

According to Silva (2018), writers who write a lot write on a set schedule with time set aside for writing.

Examples:

(Holland & Forrest, 2017)

In a book by Holland and Forrest (2017)…

  • For a work by three or more authors, cite last name of the first author followed by et al. and the year on all references. Add additional authors if using just one would cause two citations in your essay to be the same. Include as many names as needed to distinguish references with the same first author and year. If only one author name would be left, include it as well, as et al. should stand for more than one name.

Examples:

(Nazzal et al., 2020)

A study done by Nazzal et al. (2020)…

(Johnson, Peterson, et al., 2019)

(Johnson, McGuire, et al., 2019)

  • Authors may be groups or organizations. Assume that the content of organizational websites should list the organization as author, unless a more specific author is listed. Group authors with long names can be abbreviated after the first citation unless two citations would use the same abbreviation—for example both the American Psychological Association and the American Psychiatry Association would be APA, so a paper using sources from both would spell them out every time. Introduce the abbreviation in the first citation.

Examples:

The American Nursing Association (ANA, n.d.)…

Over 6 million children are estimated to have ADHD (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2016).

  • If no author exists for the source, use the first few words of the title. The title is in title case, even if in sentence case on the reference page. Titles in italics on the reference page are also in italics in the in-text citation. Titles in plain text on the reference page are in quotes in the in-text citation.

Example:

Some writers find it easier to write long hand first rather than write on a computer (“Writing Tips,” 2020).

  • Sources that cannot be recovered by others, such as emails, personal interviews, or in-person lectures that were not recorded, are cited only in the text, without appearing on the reference page. Include exact dates for personal communications.

Examples:

Dr. S. Knight, a professor of English…(personal communication, March 2, 2020)

(S. Knight, personal communication, March 2, 2020)

  • If the material is a direct quote, include a specific location within it in the in-text citation. Although not required, locations are recommended when paraphrasing from long works such as books. Locations can be page numbers, paragraph numbers, chapters, headings, time codes, table or figure numbers, or standard numbers such as book, chapter, and verse for Bible citations, or a combination of these. See the – Library’s Citing Sources in APA guide (https://libguides.-.edu/APA) for more examples.

Examples:

  • (Silva, 2018, p. 15)—Page numbers
  • (Pauwels & Mannay, 2020, pp. 186–190)—Page range
  • (- Academics, 2019, 1:30)—Time code for a video
  • (Knight, 2020, Slide 6)—PowerPoint posted in LoudCloud
  • (King James Bible, 1987/2008, Psalm 23:1)—Bible, from https://www.biblegateway.com/
  • (Barker, 1985, Matthew 3:13)—Study Bibles are cited as edited books, with the editor in the author place and then the location.
  • (Barker, 1985, footnote to Matthew 3:4, p.1445)—Study Bibles are cited as edited books. Cite notes with locations and page numbers.
  • (Waddell, 2015, Shared Worldview Analysis section)—using a heading for a work without page numbers. Long headings may be shortened and enclosed in quotes.
  • Quotations with 40 or more words should be in block format.
    1. Omit the encompassing quotation marks.
    2. Start a block quote on a new line.
    3. Indent the entire quotation 0.5 inches from the left margin (in the same position as a new paragraph).
    4. Additional paragraphs within a block quote should have the first line indented an additional 0.5 inches.
    5. The in-text citation for a block quote is placed outside the final punctuation for the quote.
    6. Double space.

 

 

Sample Paragraph With In-Text Citations

 

Holland and Forrest (2017) define an argument as a claim or belief with a set of reasons in support, presented in a structured way. An argument is to defend a position as reasonable, even if it can’t prove a claim true. Good arguments are also an important part of developing one’s own thinking. They continue,

In order to argue well, you must first learn how to develop good arguments by yourself, independent of a discussion with someone else; and if you are able to present a rational defense of a claim palatable enough to quench your own skepticism, it is likely that you will be able to present it to others for their edification as well. (Holland & Forrest, 2017, Chapter 1, “Essential Features” section)

Knowing how to write academically can be a challenge for some students (Nazzal et al., 2020). Students need to be explicitly taught “how to make a claim and advance an argument by threading the claim throughout the paper” (Nazzal et al., 2020, p. 285).

In-Text Citation Examples

Book Reference—ebook from Ebook Central, a library database:

Silvia, P. J. (2018). How to write a lot: A practical guide to productive academic writing. American Psychological Association.

With a direct quote:

Silva (2018) notes that “writing schedules, aside from fostering much more writing, dampen the drama that surrounds academic writing” (p. 15).

Without a direct quote:

Writing on a schedule takes the stress and drama out of writing (Silva, 2018).

APA References

The reference list should appear at the end of a paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.

Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page References, capitalized and in bold, centered at the top of the page. The References page should be double-spaced just like the rest of the paper.

The examples in this section are some of the most common source types. Additional examples can be found on the – Library’s Citing Sources in APA guide (https://libguides.-.edu/APA) and the APA Style website (https://apastyle.apa.org).

  • All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation.
  • Invert all authors’ names; give surnames and initials for up to and including 20 authors (e.g., Author, A. A., Author B. B., Author, C. C.). When authors number 21 or more, include the first 20 authors’ names, then insert three ellipses, and add the last author’s name.
  • In references for journal articles, include both the volume and issue numbers if available. Skip the issue number element if not listed.
  • Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.
  • If you have more than one article by the exact same author or authors, they are listed in order by the year of publication, starting with the earliest.
  • Titles of all works except periodicals are in sentence case. Use normal type for articles. Use italics for books or other complete works. The titles of periodicals (journals, magazines, and newspapers) are in title case and in italics.
  • For works without dates substitute n.d.—lowercase, with the periods, without any internal spaces—for the date.
  • Include DOIs, which are unique document ID numbers assigned to many sources, for all sources that provide them, even print. Do not include a URL if there is a DOI.
  • URLs may be plain text or hyperlinked, but choose one format for the entire paper.
  • Do not include URLs (including permalinks) for sources from library databases unless the database is the original proprietary publisher. Sources without DOIs from most library databases are cited as if print. See the – Library’s Citing Sources in APA research guide for a current list of exceptions.
  • Do not abbreviate group authors.
  • Take care to determine the correct category for online sources. Many online sources are not webpages—they may be reports, periodical articles, or books. Use the website source type only if a more specific type does not fit.

Reference Examples: Books, Reference Books, and Book Chapters

Book With a DOI

Format:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Publisher. https://doi.org/xyz

Example:

Goldfinger, K. B. (2019). Psychological testing in everyday life: History, science, and practice. SAGE Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781071802830

  • Cite all books or ebooks with DOIs this way, regardless of how you obtain them.

Book Without a DOI—Print or Library Ebook

Format:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Publisher.

Example:

Holland, R. A., & Forrest, B. K. (2017). Good arguments: Making your case in writing and public speaking. Baker Academic.

Ebook Without a DOI—Not From Library

Format:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Publisher. http://www.xyz

Example:

Curtis, E. (2020). Control alt achieve: Rebooting your classroom with creative Google projects. Dave Burgess Consulting. https://www.amazon.com/dp/B088FZ44M2/ref=cm_sw_em_r_mt_dp_U_9EIdFbVPCDGAZ

Edited Book

Format: Include the DOI if there is one

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of work. Publisher.

Example:

Pauwels, L., & Mannay, D. (Eds.). (2020). The SAGE handbook of visual research methods. SAGE Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781526417015

Chapter in a Book With DOI

Format:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx–xxx). Publisher. https://doi.org/xyz

Example:

Higgins, E. T. (2020). Thinking more is more when less is more. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), My biggest research mistake: Adventures and misadventures in psychological research (pp. 19–21). SAGE Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781071802601.n9

Chapter in a Book Without a DOI, Print or Library Ebook

Format:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. x–x). Publisher.

Example:

Ellis, M., Adebonjo, L., & Campbell, K. (2013). Why go mobile? In A. W. Dobbs, R. L. Sittler, & D. Cook (Eds.), Using LibGuides to enhance library services (pp. 239–253). ALA TechSource.

Chapter in a Book Without a DOI, Available Online

Format:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. x–x). http://www.xyz

Example:

Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17–43). http://www.science.com/ Philosophy and the science.pdf

Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia

Formats:

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of reference work. Publisher. https://doi.og/xyz

Group Author. (Year). Title of reference work. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from https://xyz

Example:

Fitzpatrick, J. (Ed.). (2017). Encyclopedia of nursing research (4th ed.). Springer Publishing Company.

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved May 24, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com

  • Include a DOI if present. Include a web address for online works not from the library.
  • Works like Merriam-Webster Online change and update each entry continuously, so a retrieval date is needed, and n.d. is used as the date.

Entry in a Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia

Formats:

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of entry. In Title of reference work. Publisher.

Group Author. (Year). Title of entry. In Title of reference work. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from https://xyz

Example:

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Animal-assisted therapy. In APA dictionary of psychology. Retrieved May 20, 2020, from https://dictionary.apa.org/animal-assisted-therapy

  • Entries with individual authors follow the chapter from a book format.
  • Works that update continuously on the same page use retrieval dates.

The Holy Bible

Format–Online:

Title of Version. (Reprint Year). Site Name. https://xyz (Original work published Year)

Examples–Online:

New American Standard Bible. (2008). Bible Gateway. https://www.biblegateway.com/versions/New-American-Standard-Bible-NASB (Original work published 1995)

King James Bible. (2020). King James Bible Online. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/ (Original work published 1769)

Format–Print:

Title of Version. (Year). Publisher. (Original work published Year)

Examples:

The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. (2001). Crossway.

The Holy Bible: New International Version. (2012). Zondervan. (Original work published 1984).

  • For online Bible texts, use the website date as the “Reprint Year” and the year of the print edition used to create the online text as the “Original work published” year. Most online Bible websites list what year of revision their text matches. On Bible Gateway for instance, find the version on the version list, click it, and check the “About” page: https://www.biblegateway.com/versions/
  • Bible Gateway posted many versions in 2008, but the date is not stated for others.
  • Many versions undergo revisions over the years. Revised publications count as new, and use the revised date as the original publication date. For example, the New International Version referenced above was published in 1978, then revised in 1984 and 2011. The 2012 copy above is of the 1984 text.
  • Omit original work published section if your copy is not a republished version, like the English Standard Version
  • The names of versions are treated as proper nouns and capitalized.
  • Additional examples and guidance can be found on the – Library’s Citing Source

Annotated or Study Bible

Format:

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of study bible. Publisher.

Example:

Barker, K. (Ed.). (1985). The NIV study bible. Zondervan.

  • Annotated or study religious works with named editors are cited like an edited book.

Reference Examples: Periodicals

Article With a DOI

Format:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Periodical Title, Volume(Issue), xx–xx. https://doi.org/xyz

Example:

Copeland, T., Henerson, B., Mayer, B., & Nicholson, S. (2013). Three different paths for tabletop gaming in school libraries. Library Trends, 61(4), 825–835. https://doi.org/10.1353/lib.2013.0018

Article With a DOI with 20 or More Authors

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S. … Author, Z. Z. (Year). Title of article. Periodical Title, Volume(Issue), xxx–xxx. https://doi.org/xyz

Journal Article Without a DOI, With Free Full Text Online

Format:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), xx–xx. http://www.xyz

Example:

Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38–48. http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap

Journal, Magazine, or Newspaper Article Without DOI, Print or From a Library Database

Formats:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), xx–xx.

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Periodical Title, xx–xx.

Examples:

Nazzal, J. S., Olson, C. B., & Chung, H. Q. (2020). Differences in academic writing across four levels of community college composition courses. Teaching English in the Two Year College, 47(3), 263-296.

Brody, L. (2019, November 21). Poor grammar irks teachers. Some students say that ain’t a problem. Wall Street Journal, A10B.

  • Omit page numbers if not provided in the database.

Article in a Magazine or Newspaper Online

Format:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Periodical Title. http://xyz

Example:

Rittgers, R. (2020, May 19). Martin Luther helps us see divine love in pandemic suffering. Christianity Today. https://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2020/may-web-only/martin-luther-coronavirus-black-plague-alien-work-of-god.html

  • Include month or month and day if available. Use n.d. for undated material.

Reference Examples: Other Published Works

Classroom Material

Format:

Author, A. A. (Date). Title of work [Format or description]. LoudCloud. https://lms-ugrad.-.edu/learningPlatform/user/login.lc

Example:

-. (2015). UNV-104 topic 1 resource [Class document]. LoudCloud. https://lms-ugrad.-.edu/learningPlatform/user/login.lc

  • Include month or month and day if available. Use n.d. for undated material.

Dissertations or Theses

Formats:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work (Publication No. XYZ) [Type, University]. Database Name.

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work [Type, University]. Archive or Site Name. https://xyz

Examples:

Coello, C. M. (2020). Teacher leaders’ self-efficacy in professional learning communities: A qualitative descriptive study (Publication No. 27956392) [Doctoral Dissertation, -]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Bassen, J. (2020). Adaptive guidance for online learning environments [Doctoral Dissertation, Stanford University]. Stanford Libraries. https://searchworks.stanford.edu/view/13500152

  • There is limited circulation of the dissertations in ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global, so the database name is included.

Report from an Organization, Without Named Authors

Format:

Organization or Agency name. (Year). Title of report (Publication No. X). Parent agency or agencies if present. http://www.xyz

Example:

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2014). Improving cultural competence (HHS Publication No. 14-4849). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK248428/

Authored Report from an Organization

Format:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of report. Agency or Organization Name. http://www.xyz

Example:

Perez, G. A., Mertz, L., & Brassard, A. (2019). A literature scan and framework of a diverse nursing workforce and its effect on the social determinates of health. Future of Nursing: Campaign for Action. https://campaignforaction.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/SDOH-Populations_Research_Workforce_Final.pdf

Reference Examples: Audiovisual Works

Videos from Library Databases

Format:

Director, Producer, Host, or Interviewer Last Name, F. I. (Role). (Date). Title of work [Description]. Production Company. DOI if provided.

Example:

Burton, H. (Host). (2014). Understanding ADHD–A conversation with Stephan Hinshaw [Video]. Open Agenda Publishing. http://doi.org/10.4135/9781473957329

  • Include role labels, in parentheses, to clarify how the named individual relates to the work.
  • Include month or month and day if available. Use n.d. for undated material.

YouTube Videos

Format:

Uploader, U. U. (Date). Title of work [Description]. Site Name. https://xyz

Example:

– Academics. (2015, May 7). Evaluating websites tutorial [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/hgG8qDMkmgw

Reference Examples: Webpages

Webpage on a News Website

Format:

Author, A. A. (Date). Title of work. Site Name. https://xyz.

Example:

Belton, P. (2020, May 22). Get ready for the ‘holy grail’ of computer graphics. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/business-52541218

Organization or Agency Website

Format:

Organization Name. (Date). Title of work. https://xyz

Example:

American Nurses Association. (n.d.). Scope of practice. https://www.nursingworld.org/practice-policy/scope-of-practice/

  • When the author and site name are the same, omit the site name.

 

Webpage With Individual Author

Format:

Author, A. A. (Date). Title of work. Site Name. https://xyz

Example:

Roos, D. (2020, May 18). When did people start eating in restaurants? History Channel. https://www.history.com/news/first-restaurants-china-france

 

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