Home » Relationships Between Categorical Variables

# Relationships Between Categorical Variables

There are two types of categorical data, which are nominal and ordinal. Nominal data do not have any innate priority over the other. These categories do not have any hierarchical importance. Example, castes like Hindu, Sikh, Jain, Muslim, etc. Any one of these categories does not have any priority over another category. Skin color is another example of nominal data. Other examples of categorical data are gender, marital status, eye color, hair color, color of t-shirt worn, birth city, etc. The other type of categorical data is ordinal data. These types of data have a hierarchical importance. One class is superior or inferior to the other. Examples of ordinal data are marks of students, economic status, temperature (low, medium, high) etc.

Relationship between two categorical variables
The two variables are analyzed usually using probabilities or frequencies. If there is any association or relation between the two variables, then they both will be dependent of each other. Also, their probability will be dependent on each other. A popular test known as chi-square is used to test the hypothesis that there is an association between the two categorical variables. A contingency table is used for a binary or dichotomous variable.

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Example: For a data where analysis is to be done and data about two categories say gender (male and female) and credit card are given. Suppose this is to check how many males and females have credit cards. Data is given as:

Where Y indicates yes and N indicates No, the person does not have a credit card.

For such a data, a contingency table is made. This table helps in better understanding of the data in a systematic manner. Contingency table for the same is given below:

From this table it can be inferred that there are 150 males and 80 females who have credit cards. There are 120 males and 100 females who do not have credit cards. Using this contingency table, chi-square test is used, and statistical hypothesis is tested.

This is a graphical representation of the data.

Relationship between categorical variable and a continuous variable
A continuous variable is the one that can take any value in the number line. This type of variable contains any value that can be measured on a scale. Examples of continuous variables are measurement of height, age, weight, etc.

One of the ways to evaluate such problems is using logistic regression or the Kruskal-Wallis H test. Few parametric tests can also be used like ANOVA or t-test. Correlation between the two variables is needed to form.

Which test to use when?
If the independent variable is categorical and the dependent variable is continuous, then ANOVA is used. If the independent variable is continuous and the depend

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Home » Relationships Between Categorical Variables

# Relationships Between Categorical Variables

Relationship between two categorical variables
The two variables are analyzed usually using probabilities or frequencies. If there is any association or relation between the two variables, then they both will be dependent of each other. Also, their probability will be dependent on each other. A popular test known as chi-square is used to test the hypothesis that there is an association between the two categorical variables. A contingency table is used for a binary or dichotomous variable.

Example: For a data where analysis is to be done and data about two categories say gender (male and female) and credit card are given. Suppose this is to check how many males and females have credit cards. Data is given as:

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Relationships Between Categorical Variables
Just from \$9/Page

Where Y indicates yes and N indicates No, the person does not have a credit card.

For such a data, a contingency table is made. This table helps in better understanding of the data in a systematic manner. Contingency table for the same is given below:

From this table it can be inferred that there are 150 males and 80 females who have credit cards. There are 120 males and 100 females who do not have credit cards. Using this contingency table, chi-square test is used, and statistical hypothesis is tested.

This is a graphical representation of the data.

Relationship between categorical variable and a continuous variable
A continuous variable is the one that can take any value in the number line. This type of variable contains any value that can be measured on a scale. Examples of continuous variables are measurement of height, age, weight, etc.

One of the ways to evaluate such problems is using logistic regression or the Kruskal-Wallis H test. Few parametric tests can also be used like ANOVA or t-test. Correlation between the two variables is needed to form.

Which test to use when?
If the independent variable is categorical and the dependent variable is continuous, then ANOVA is used. If the independent variable is continuous and the dependent variable is categorical, then Logistic Regression is used.

If the independent variable and the dependent variable are categorical, then Chi-Square test is used.

If the independent variable and the dependent variable are continuous, then Linear Regression is used.

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• Get superb grades consistently

## Online Academic Help With Different Subjects

### Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.

### Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

### Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!

### Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.

### Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.

### Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.

### Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.

### Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!

### Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.

### Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

## What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

## Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

## What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

### Reasons being:

• When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
• We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

### In the event that you don’t like your paper:

• The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
• We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
• Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

## Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

## What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

## When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

## Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

## How our Assignment Help Service Works

#### 1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

#### 2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

#### 3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

#### 4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

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