Home » Risk of subsequent childhood obesity

Risk of subsequent childhood obesity

This paper investigated the impact of early life course risk factors on the risk of subsequent childhood obesity. For many of the investigated risk factors, we found a raw effect in our study. Our results regarding maternal smoking are confirmed by literature. In studies where maternal smoking was assessed, this factor is quite consistently reported to be a marked risk factor. Similarly, high gestational weight gain was previously shown to be a risk factor not only for overweight and obesity of the child, but also of the mother. Sometimes this effect is attributed to the influence of maternal adiposity, however in our study, gestational weight gain showed an independent effect, also after control for parental BMI. We were well in accordance with the literature, regarding high birth weight which was also a risk factor in our study. However, when we adjusted for fat-free mass, this effect was completely removed, corroborating the hypothesis that birth weight is mainly influencing lean body mass and not fat mass. Since the BMI is correlated with fat mass and with fat-free mass, one could argue that adjusting for fat-free mass leads generally to over-adjustment. Since the difference of fat-free mass between normal-weight and obese children is much lower than that of fat mass, we argue that adjustment for fat-free mass should not be able to mask any true effect on fat mass. Moreover, we checked for each of the other investigated factors whether adjustment for fat-free mass influences the OR. This was, apart from the effect for birth weight, not the case.

Caesarian section is another putative risk factor for childhood obesity that came into focus rather recently. We also did find an elevated risk for obesity in the offspring, also after controlling for gestational gain, maternal BMI and breastfeeding initiation. However, in the final multivariate model Caesarian section was not of particular importance, when judged by the Wald statistic, and no longer statistically significant. The impact breastfeeding exerts on overweight is controversial since it is influenced by several other risk factors, as e.g. socioeconomic status, maternal BMI and maternal smoking. One of the rare RCTs showed no effects of feeding breast milk on the prevalence of obesity until the age of 15, suggesting that the protective effects found in other studies were due to statistical artifacts. On breastfeeding promotion in preterm babies in Belarus showed no difference regarding obesity prevalence later in life in the two arms of the study. Many previous studies have investigated either ever versus never-breastfeeding, while fewer have studied the duration of breastfeeding. Moreover, duration of breast-feeding is frequently modeled as months of breastfeeding assuming thus a strictly linear effect without any upper limit. In our study, we categorized the duration of breastfeeding and found a u-shaped effect. Interestingly, a similar pattern was found in a cohort study in Spain and in a secondary analysis of several cohorts examining the risk of duration of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors. However, in our study, the effects were no longer statistically significant when controlling for confounding factors. As many other studies, we also found a strong impact of parental weight status on the risk of childhood obesity. In a full model that included all investigated early life course risk factors for which we could establish an effect, gestational weight gain, smoking during pregnancy, Caesarian section were found to be risk factors for later childhood obesity, and breastfeeding 4 to 11 months was found to be protective. However, after additional adjustment for parental BMI and parental educational status, only gestational weight gain remained statistically significant. Both, maternal as well as paternal BMI were the strongest risk factors in our study, and they confounded several of the investigated associations.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Risk of subsequent childhood obesity
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

The current study has several limitations. It has to be kept in mind that the study regions are not representative of the respective emirates of UAE, let alone of the UAE population as a whole. Moreover, due to the high number of Abu Dhabi obese children in the study baseline survey (and the low number in Dubai and Sharjah), the case-control sample was highly unbalanced with regard to country. As country was a matching variable this should not bias the results. We did not test for different effects by country, as we did for sex and age group, since the sample size was too small for most emirates. For most of the associations that are hypothesized to be of a physiologic nature, like e.g. the association between Caesarian section and obesity, generalizability should not be compromised by the choice of regions. However, the association of social factors, like parental education, with childhood obesity is strongly dependent on context and therefore of limited external validity.

The investigated risk factors all rely on parental self-report. The validity of parental recall of most of the investigated factors is quite high, and we did not find much evidence for differential misclassification, which means that recall bias leads to risk attenuation rather than to distorted results. Recall bias might play a role in the lacking effect for introduction of solid food, as this factors has probably lowest validity among all investigated factors. Parental BMI is calculated using self-reported height and weight. Self-reported BMI is known to underestimate the true BMI, especially in the obese. Assuming a familial clustering of obesity this produces a likely differential misclassification for parental BMI in our cases and controls. This misclassification also leads to attenuated Odds Ratios for paternal and maternal BMI, since especially among cases the proportion of overweight and obese parents is underestimated as opposed to the control group.

Our results show that parental BMI is of particular importance for childhood obesity. The parental BMI is a factor or an indicator for very different causal pathways, belonging to categories of shared genetics, a shared obesogenic environment or the process known as early programming. Currently many obesity intervention programs target children. However, reducing the prevalence of parental overweight and obesity would not only help preventing childhood obesity, but would in general lead to an improved health not only of the children, but also of their parents. Beyond this, our results indicate that especially maternal weight gain should be monitored closely during pregnancy. The mechanisms and possible prevention targets of maternal diet and other social and behavioral factors before and during pregnancy as risk factors for parental BMI and high gestational weight gain as well as for obesity in the offspring should be the subject of further studies.


Handling of missing and incomplete data

The fitness levels and sex of the participants in each school will be compared with the class averages. This will provide an estimate of the generalizability of the findings in each school according to the class they represent. Where participants are found to differ from the class average, weighted scores will be presented along with crude prevalence figures. Missing data for individuals will be imputed using measures on individuals with comparable scores in other known values. For example, waist measurement may be imputed from a different participant with the same BMI and height. Results based on data without and with imputed fields will be presented.

Physical activity

Each participant will be asked to complete the physical activity questionnaire for adolescents (PAQ-A). The questionnaire is a seven-day recall on physical activity; a validated questionnaire that has been used widely in research. The questionnaire will be administered and completed during the same session as the BP. Instructions will be explained to participants prior to starting the test and they will be encouraged to complete the questionnaire alone. It will take approximately 20 minutes to complete the questionnaire.


Even though the health consequences of obesity are most commonly seen during adulthood, the underlying factors of these diseases could originate during childhood. Evidence is now emerging that obesity-driven type 2 diabetes might become the most common form of diabetes in adolescents within the next ten years. It is therefore vital to know exactly how early the health consequences and risk factors for these serious diseases occur, and how early the can be detected if they are to be addressed successfully.

In recent years, childhood obesity has become a world wide issue with increasing poor dietary habits together with inactivity being associated with rising levels of obesity in children. Many studies have convincingly shown that overweight and obesity during adolescence is a determinant of a number of CVD risk factors in adulthood. Results from longitudinal studies have shown that adolescent adiposity tracks moderately into adulthood, implying that preventing obesity during childhood may be advantageous to health in later life. Patterns of fat distribution have also been shown to influence CVD risk. It has been discovered by many studies that abdominal obesity better predicts CVD risk compared to overall obesity. It seems that the elevated risk of abdominal obesity is related to the visceral fat that is stored around the internal organs.

Identifiable Risk Factors

Many risk factors have been recognised as contributors towards the development of CVD. These include unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. More recently other risk factors have been shown to contribute towards the development of CVD, notably, elevated concentrations of fibrinogen (Fg), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6); and reduced levels of adiponectin (high molecular weight). Fibrinogen is the main coagulation protein in plasma and thus promotes activities such as platelet aggregation and increased blood viscosity. Elevated fibrinogen levels have been found in obese individuals and thus may have an indirect effect on CVD through levels of adiposity. Fg is also thought to be responsible for changes in other acute phase proteins, notably CRP. These are released as a result of active inflammation (an underlying cause of CVD), moreover, it appears that the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 is the underlying stimulator of these acute phase proteins. Adiponectin is a protein hormone that regulates the metabolism of lipids. It is the most abundant hormone released from fat cells and has been suggested to be anti-inflammatory. Concentrations of this protein have been found to be low in obese individuals, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of CVD and increased inflammation. It can therefore be seen that CVD risk may not solely be due to one factor but a combination of many which may originate through behavioural and lifestyle factors.

Socioeconomic status, ethnicity and other factors

It has also emerged that CVD risk may differ between people of differing socioeconomic status (SES), this is true for both developed, and developing countries. In developed countries, epidemiological evidence illustrates that SES is inversely linked with CVD morbidity and mortality; however, evidence of this relationship in developing countries, is sparse. This may suggest that behavioural factors have a higher influence on disease risk factor profiles that genetic factors. As previously highlighted, there is growing evidence that the risk for CVD originates during childhood, indeed, research has found that a very low or very high birth weight is associated with increased risk of CVD. Furthermore, there is evidence that birth weight varies according to ethnic background and thus individuals with Asian or African origins could be at a higher genetic risk of developing obesity and CVD. This protocol outlines the methods to examine lifestyle and behavioural factors associated with childhood obesity, diabetes and CVD risk in school children aged 11–13 years.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essay GET A PERFECT SCORE!!! smile and order essay Buy Custom Essay

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.
  +1 718 717 2861           + 44 161 818 7126           [email protected]
  +1 718 717 2861         [email protected]