Sixteenth Century Northern Europe

Sixteenth-Century Northern Europe

16th Century Europe in the North – Religious Change

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  • Challenges to the status quo of the Roman Catholic Church
  • Holland – Desiderius Erasmus (reform from within)
  • Germany – Martin Luther (Lutheran)
  • Switzerland – John Calvin (Calvinism)
  • England – Henry VIII
  • Protestantism led to iconoclasm (deliberate destruction of religious images)
  • Dislike of religious images led to development of other genres
  • Conflicts became military in nature
  • As tide swung one way or another, artists often found themselves on “the wrong side”

Albrecht Dürer, Self-Portrait, 1500. Oil on wood.

Albrecht Dürer’s Self-Portrait, 1500. Oil on limewood panel. Alte Pinakothek, Munich.

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Workshop of Hans Krug (?), Apple Cup. C. 1510-1515. Gilt silver, height 21.5 cm.

 

Haguenau and Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece, c. 1505–15. Painted and gilt limewood and oil on wood panel.

Nikolaus Haguenau’s Isenheim Altarpiece, c. 1505-1515. Painted and gilt limewood. Musée Unterlinden, Colmar, France.

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Nikolaus Haguenau and Matthais Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece, c. 1505–15. Painted and gilt limewood and oil on wood panel.

Matthais Grünewald’s Isenheim Altarpiece, c. 1505-1515. Oil on wood panel. Musée Unterlinden, Colmar, France.

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Haguenau and Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece (detail), c. 1505–15. Painted and gilt limewood and oil on wood panel.

Matthais Grünewald’s Isenheim Altarpiece detail, c. 1505-1515. Oil on wood panel. Musée Unterlinden, Colmar, France.

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Haguenau and Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece (open), c. 1505–15. Painted and gilt limewood and oil on wood panel.

Matthais Grünewald’s Isenheim Altarpiece detail, c. 1505-1515. Oil on wood panel. Musée Unterlinden, Colmar, France.

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Haguenau and Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece (wings), c. 1505–15. Painted and gilt limewood and oil on wood panel.

Matthais Grünewald’s Isenheim Altarpiece detail, c. 1505-1515. Oil on wood panel. Musée Unterlinden, Colmar, France.

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Albrecht Dürer, The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, from The Apocalypse. 1497-98. Woodcut, 39.4 x 28.3 cm.

Albrecht Dürer, Fall of Man (Adam and Eve), 1504. Engraving.

https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/adam-and-eve/uwEu0RikJE-A5Q?hl=en

Albrecht Dürer, Adam and Eve, 1504. Engraving. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

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Albrecht Dürer, The Four Apostles, 1526. Oil on wood panel.

What will Protestant Art look like?

Albrecht Dürer’s The Four Apostles, 1526. Oil on wood panel. Alte Pinakothek, Munich.

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Lucas Cranach the Elder, Nymph of the Spring, c. 1537. Oil on panel, 48.5 x 72.9 cm.

 

 

 

Hans Baldung Grien, Death and the Matron, c. 1520-1525. Oil on wood panel, 31.3 x 18.7 cm.

 

 

 

Albrecht Altdorfer, Danube Landscape. c. 1525. Oil on vellum on wood panel, 30.5 x 22.2 cm.

 

Hieronymus Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delights, triptych, c. 1505.

Oil on wood panel.

Hieronymus Bosch’s Garden of Earthly Delights triptych, c. 1505. Oil on wood panel. Prado, Madrid.

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Caterina van Hemessen, Self-Portrait, 1548. Oil on wood panel, 31.1 x 23.5 cm.

 

Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Hunters in the Snow, 1565. Oil on wood.

https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/hunters-in-the-snow-winter/WgFmzFNNN74nUg?hl=en

Pieter Bruegel the Elder’s Hunters in the Snow,1565. Oil on wood. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.

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Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Harvesters, 1565. Oil on wood.

https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/the-harvesters/PAH1oMZ5dGBkxg?hl=en

Hans Holbein the Younger, The French Ambassadors, 1533. Oil and tempera on wood.

Hans Holbein the Younger’s The Amassadors, 1533. Oil on oak. National Gallery, London.

Left: Jean de Dinteville

Right: Georges de Selve

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Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger, Queen Elizabeth I (The Ditchley Portrait), c. 1592. Oil on canvas, 2.4 x 1.5 m.

 

Albrecht Dürer’s Self-Portrait, 1500. Oil on limewood panel. Alte Pinakothek, Munich.

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Nikolaus Haguenau’s Isenheim Altarpiece, c. 1505-1515. Painted and gilt limewood. Musée Unterlinden, Colmar, France.

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Matthais Grünewald’s Isenheim Altarpiece, c. 1505-1515. Oil on wood panel. Musée Unterlinden, Colmar, France.

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Matthais Grünewald’s Isenheim Altarpiece detail, c. 1505-1515. Oil on wood panel. Musée Unterlinden, Colmar, France.

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Matthais Grünewald’s Isenheim Altarpiece detail, c. 1505-1515. Oil on wood panel. Musée Unterlinden, Colmar, France.

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Matthais Grünewald’s Isenheim Altarpiece detail, c. 1505-1515. Oil on wood panel. Musée Unterlinden, Colmar, France.

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Albrecht Dürer, Adam and Eve, 1504. Engraving. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

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Albrecht Dürer’s The Four Apostles, 1526. Oil on wood panel. Alte Pinakothek, Munich.

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Hieronymus Bosch’s Garden of Earthly Delights triptych, c. 1505. Oil on wood panel. Prado, Madrid.

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Pieter Bruegel the Elder’s Hunters in the Snow,1565. Oil on wood. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.

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Hans Holbein the Younger’s The Amassadors, 1533. Oil on oak. National Gallery, London.

Left: Jean de Dinteville

Right: Georges de Selve

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