Standard error on graphs question

Scientific Writing
Introduction
It must contain three elements…..
• Context and logic to why the research needs to be conducted
• The reason(s) why the hypothesis was the most sensible statement of
the phenomenon that you were testing — when you began the
experiment
– leading to
• A novel hypothesis
Introduction
Available via LMS – “example APS
paper with notes”:
https://moodleprod.murdoch.edu.
au/course/view.php?id=15056#se
ction-4
Unit assignment – the reality
• Finite number of hypotheses
• What are they?
• Therefore: all of your introductions will be similar
• Paragraph structure
Unit assignment – the reality
• Finite number of hypotheses
• What are they?
• Growth, intake, ADG, FCE as affected by nutrition and/or genetics
• (sadly no wool this year)
• Therefore: all of your introductions will be similar
• Paragraph structure
Unit assignment – the reality
• Finite number of hypotheses
• What are they?
• Growth, intake, ADG, FCE as affected by nutrition and/or genetics
• (sadly no wool this year)
• Therefore: all of your introductions will be similar
• Paragraph structure
• What are the paragraphs?
Unit assignment – the reality
• Paragraph 1 – context
• 1
• 2
• 3
• Paragraph 2 – logic and gaps
• 1
• 2
• 3
• Paragraph 3 – justifies hypothesis
• 1
The good news
• If you ensure that you are precise, clear and brief, you have little
else to worry about
• There are no hidden agendas — the most acceptable scientific style
is plain simple English
• Write to inform not to impress
BE SPECIFIC
General comments
• Be specific
• Be accurate
• Non specific versus specific
• What are the similarities, what are the differences
BE SPECIFIC
Animals are normally sent to a feedlot to reach a higher slaughter and carcass weight in a shorter period of time. In
livestock production, there are several important factors that influence the production and energy is the most limiting
factor. Nonetheless, protein is a crucial nutrient that is essential for young growing animals (Tag Eldin et al, 2011).
Protein plays an important role as it influences the growth and slaughter weight of lambs and a number of studies
concluded that as the crude protein (CP) levels increases, the level of DM intake, average daily gain (ADG) and carcass
weight increases respectively (Prima et al, 2019)
The level of protein intake directly affects the amount of tissue that is laid as muscles and this affects the weight of the
carcass (Ríos-Rincón et al, 2014). The performance of the animals can be improved with an increased CP level in their
daily intake as this increases their nutrient intake (Santos et al, 2015). It is also shown that the follicle processes and
fibre growth is influenced by nutrients such as protein (Freer & Dove, 2002).
The study is done to test the hypothesis that (1) Merino lambs fed with a diet of higher dietary protein level will reach
a heavier weight faster and (2) Merino lambs fed with a diet of higher dietary protein level will have more wool
produced.
BE SPECIFIC
The expanse of the Australian red meat industry continues to change the dynamics of Merino production, demanding an emphasis on improved ASBV genetic selection towards carcase attributes in prime lamb production (Meat and Livestock Australia, 2018).
However, Merino-sired progeny continue to underperform in comparison to their Terminal and Maternal counterparts. Comparatively, Merino progeny perform at lighter average pre-slaughter weights and lower carcase dressing percentage (#6 Brand et al., 2017),
resulting in overall lighter hot standard carcase weight (HSCW) (#17 Gardner et al., 2014), which is undesirable in an industry paid on yield (Meat and Livestock Australia, 2018). Partially attributed to their inherent leanness and later maturity pattern (#7 Brand et al.,
2018) Merinos require longer periods of feeding to reach target slaughter weight, compounded with decreased ADG and less efficient FCR after extended periods under extensive feedlot conditions (#6 Brand et al., 2017). Ultimately, a reflection of the minimal selection
pressure placed on Merino carcase attributes (#17 Gardner et al., 2014).
Meanwhile, the battle of yield versus quality continues to challenge current Australian lamb paradigms. Eating quality is recognised as an essential factor in future red meat research (#11 Pethick et al., 2011) yet selection for high yielding, superior carcase ASBV’s,
including sires with increased PEMD and decrease PFAT (#5 Anderson, Pethick, and Gardner, 2016), has led to compromised consumer perception and lowered sensory scoring of topside and loin cuts (#12 Pannier et al., 2014).
Despite lack of industry incentive to focus on lamb carcase quality, higher IMF is strongly correlated with regulating meat flavour and juiciness (#12 Pannier et al., 2014), increasing palatability (#13 Pannier, Pethick, Geesink, Ball, Jacob and Gardner, 2014) and is
genetically associated with lower shear forces values, indicative of tenderness (#19 Mortimer et al., 2014).
In contrast to ASBV’s for PEMD and PFAT, research shows higher PWWT values have no effect on IMF (#13 Pannier, Pethick, Geesink, Ball, Jacob and Gardner, 2014), providing a genetic platform to select for superior carcase yield (PWWT), without compromise of carcase
quality (IMF).
Fortunately for the Merino, the high heritability of IMF (Mortimer et al., 2014) and its apparent accelerated pattern of development specifically in the Merino (#13 Pannier et al., 2014) gifts the breed an advantage for accelerated genetic gain in eating quality.
It is therefore expected that progeny of high IMF Merino sires will have higher carcase IMF values, regardless of the provision of the LambGro or EasyOne ration. It can also be expected that progeny IMF values will be unaffected by sire PWWT ASBV’s.
To address underperformance in carcase yield, it is evident that PWWT has substantial impacts on Merino carcase weight as a result of increased pre-slaughter weight and higher dressing percentages (#13 Pannier et al., 2014). In contrast to Terminal and Maternal
progeny, higher PWWT breeding values are significantly more impactful in Merino-sired lambs resulting in heavier carcase weights for lambs slaughtered at the same age (#5 Anderson, Pethick, and Gardner, 2016). The marked carcase weight gain from selecting superior
PWWT Merino genetics provides an opportunity for excelled prime lamb production (#17 Gardner et al., 2014) with the potential for more lambs to reach target weight in shorter intervals (#5 Anderson, Pethick, and Gardner, 2016).
For the feedlot lamb carcase yield, it therefore is predicated that the progeny of Merino sires with superior PWWT ASBV’s will have significantly higher pre-slaughter weight, dressing percentage and therefore heavier carcase weights under the LambGro ration.
However, previous studies indicate the genetic potential of sire PWWT growth as heavily dependent on elevated nutrition (#18 Hegarty et al., 2006) and demonstrate the effect of roughage content and gut fill on dressing percentage.
(#10) Ponnampalam, Linden, Mitchell, Hopkins and Jacobs (2017) concluded that rations with increased roughage with moderate energy concentrations, deficient in dietary protein – comparative to a EasyGro ration – result in increased gut-fill and consequently lower
carcase dressing percentages. The resulting increase in non-carcase components in higher roughage diets lead to lower carcase yield (Ponnampalam et al., 2017). In contrast, higher protein, moderate energy rations – comparative to a ‘LambGro’ ration – tend to have
lower gut fill, with higher dressing percentages (#17 Gardner et al., 2014) and subsequent higher yield (#10 Ponnampalam et al., 2017). Additionally, genetic potential of lamb growth as a factor of PWWT is shown to be circumstantially affected by level of nutrition (#18
Hegarty et al., 2006).
Aligned with previous search, it is then predicted that the EasyOne ration will suppress superior PWWT sire effects, and subsequently have no significant impact on pre-slaughter weight, dressing percentage and resulting carcase weight.
BE SPECIFIC
Animals are normally sent to a feedlot to reach a higher slaughter and carcass weight in a shorter period of time. In
livestock production, there are several important factors that influence the production and energy is the most limiting
factor. Nonetheless, protein is a crucial nutrient that is essential for young growing animals (Tag Eldin et al, 2011).
Protein plays an important role as it influences the growth and slaughter weight of lambs and a number of studies
concluded that as the crude protein (CP) levels increases, the level of DM intake, average daily gain (ADG) and carcass
weight increases respectively (Prima et al, 2019)
The level of protein intake directly affects the amount of tissue that is laid as muscles and this affects the weight of the
carcass (Ríos-Rincón et al, 2014). The performance of the animals can be improved with an increased CP level in their
daily intake as this increases their nutrient intake (Santos et al, 2015). It is also shown that the follicle processes and
fibre growth is influenced by nutrients such as protein (Freer & Dove, 2002).
The study is done to test the hypothesis that (1) Merino lambs fed with a diet of higher dietary protein level will reach
a heavier weight faster and (2) Merino lambs fed with a diet of higher dietary protein level will have more wool
produced.
BE SPECIFIC
The expanse of the Australian red meat industry continues to change the dynamics of Merino production, demanding an emphasis on improved ASBV genetic selection towards carcase attributes in prime lamb production (Meat and Livestock Australia, 2018).
However, Merino-sired progeny continue to underperform in comparison to their Terminal and Maternal counterparts. Comparatively, Merino progeny perform at lighter average pre-slaughter weights and lower carcase dressing percentage (#6 Brand et al., 2017),
resulting in overall lighter hot standard carcase weight (HSCW) (#17 Gardner et al., 2014), which is undesirable in an industry paid on yield (Meat and Livestock Australia, 2018). Partially attributed to their inherent leanness and later maturity pattern (#7 Brand et al.,
2018) Merinos require longer periods of feeding to reach target slaughter weight, compounded with decreased ADG and less efficient FCR after extended periods under extensive feedlot conditions (#6 Brand et al., 2017). Ultimately, a reflection of the minimal selection
pressure placed on Merino carcase attributes (#17 Gardner et al., 2014).
Meanwhile, the battle of yield versus quality continues to challenge current Australian lamb paradigms. Eating quality is recognised as an essential factor in future red meat research (#11 Pethick et al., 2011) yet selection for high yielding, superior carcase ASBV’s,
including sires with increased PEMD and decrease PFAT (#5 Anderson, Pethick, and Gardner, 2016), has led to compromised consumer perception and lowered sensory scoring of topside and loin cuts (#12 Pannier et al., 2014).
Despite lack of industry incentive to focus on lamb carcase quality, higher IMF is strongly correlated with regulating meat flavour and juiciness (#12 Pannier et al., 2014), increasing palatability (#13 Pannier, Pethick, Geesink, Ball, Jacob and Gardner, 2014) and is
genetically associated with lower shear forces values, indicative of tenderness (#19 Mortimer et al., 2014).
In contrast to ASBV’s for PEMD and PFAT, research shows higher PWWT values have no effect on IMF (#13 Pannier, Pethick, Geesink, Ball, Jacob and Gardner, 2014), providing a genetic platform to select for superior carcase yield (PWWT), without compromise of carcase
quality (IMF).
Fortunately for the Merino, the high heritability of IMF (Mortimer et al., 2014) and its apparent accelerated pattern of development specifically in the Merino (#13 Pannier et al., 2014) gifts the breed an advantage for accelerated genetic gain in eating quality.
It is therefore expected that progeny of high IMF Merino sires will have higher carcase IMF values, regardless of the provision of the LambGro or EasyOne ration. It can also be expected that progeny IMF values will be unaffected by sire PWWT ASBV’s.
To address underperformance in carcase yield, it is evident that PWWT has substantial impacts on Merino carcase weight as a result of increased pre-slaughter weight and higher dressing percentages (#13 Pannier et al., 2014). In contrast to Terminal and Maternal
progeny, higher PWWT breeding values are significantly more impactful in Merino-sired lambs resulting in heavier carcase weights for lambs slaughtered at the same age (#5 Anderson, Pethick, and Gardner, 2016). The marked carcase weight gain from selecting superior
PWWT Merino genetics provides an opportunity for excelled prime lamb production (#17 Gardner et al., 2014) with the potential for more lambs to reach target weight in shorter intervals (#5 Anderson, Pethick, and Gardner, 2016).
For the feedlot lamb carcase yield, it therefore is predicated that the progeny of Merino sires with superior PWWT ASBV’s will have significantly higher pre-slaughter weight, dressing percentage and therefore heavier carcase weights under the LambGro ration.
However, previous studies indicate the genetic potential of sire PWWT growth as heavily dependent on elevated nutrition (#18 Hegarty et al., 2006) and demonstrate the effect of roughage content and gut fill on dressing percentage.
(#10) Ponnampalam, Linden, Mitchell, Hopkins and Jacobs (2017) concluded that rations with increased roughage with moderate energy concentrations, deficient in dietary protein – comparative to a EasyGro ration – result in increased gut-fill and consequently lower
carcase dressing percentages. The resulting increase in non-carcase components in higher roughage diets lead to lower carcase yield (Ponnampalam et al., 2017). In contrast, higher protein, moderate energy rations – comparative to a ‘LambGro’ ration – tend to have
lower gut fill, with higher dressing percentages (#17 Gardner et al., 2014) and subsequent higher yield (#10 Ponnampalam et al., 2017). Additionally, genetic potential of lamb growth as a factor of PWWT is shown to be circumstantially affected by level of nutrition (#18
Hegarty et al., 2006).
Aligned with previous search, it is then predicted that the EasyOne ration will suppress superior PWWT sire effects, and subsequently have no significant impact on pre-slaughter weight, dressing percentage and resulting carcase weight.
& ACCURATE
Vitamin D has been recognised to have several roles in
the regulation of immune function and can enhance innate
antimicrobial immune responses, while dampening excessive
adaptive responses and inflammation to maintain selftolerance
and prevent auto-immunity (Lang et al. 2013). During
pregnancy, vitamin D is thought to enhance innate
antimicrobial
and anti-inflammatory responses within the
placenta and reproductive tissues, which may protect the
fetus from intrauterine infection and subsequent inflammation
(Grayson and Hewison 2011). Maternal transfer of vitamin D
to
the lamb may occur in utero, or, to a lesser degree,
postnatally
via intake of milk (Lapillonne 2010). Thus, any vitamin D
deficiency in pregnant ewes could have negative impacts on
the immune system of the ewe and/or lamb. Increasing the
vitamin D concentrations in neonatal lambs at birth may
confer a greater ability to control infection and/or limit
infection-driven inflammation, and, thus, may contribute
Supplementation of ewes with
vitamin D during pregnancy could provide an
effective
means to increase the concentrations of vitamin D in
the ewe and her lamb/s in utero, thereby improving
innate and/or adaptive immunity in the ewe, and
innate and/or passive immunity in the lamb.
& ACCURATE
Vitamin D has been recognised to have several roles in
the regulation of immune function and can enhance innate
antimicrobial immune responses, while dampening excessive
adaptive responses and inflammation to maintain selftolerance
and prevent auto-immunity (Lang et al. 2013). During
pregnancy, vitamin D is thought to enhance innate
antimicrobial
and anti-inflammatory responses within the
placenta and reproductive tissues, which may protect the
fetus from intrauterine infection and subsequent inflammation
(Grayson and Hewison 2011). Maternal transfer of vitamin D
to
the lamb may occur in utero, or, to a lesser degree,
postnatally
via intake of milk (Lapillonne 2010). Thus, any vitamin D
deficiency in pregnant ewes could have negative impacts on
the immune system of the ewe and/or lamb. Increasing the
vitamin D concentrations in neonatal lambs at birth may
confer a greater ability to control infection and/or limit
infection-driven inflammation, and, thus, may contribute
Supplementation of ewes with
vitamin D during pregnancy could provide an
effective
means to increase the concentrations of vitamin D in
the ewe and her lamb/s in utero, thereby improving
innate and/or adaptive immunity in the ewe, and
innate and/or passive immunity in the lamb.
& ACCURATE
Vitamin D has been recognised to have several roles in
the regulation of immune function and can enhance innate
antimicrobial immune responses, while dampening excessive
adaptive responses and inflammation to maintain selftolerance
and prevent auto-immunity (Lang et al. 2013). During
pregnancy, vitamin D is thought to enhance innate
antimicrobial
and anti-inflammatory responses within the
placenta and reproductive tissues, which may protect the
fetus from intrauterine infection and subsequent inflammation
(Grayson and Hewison 2011). Maternal transfer of vitamin D
to
the lamb may occur in utero, or, to a lesser degree,
postnatally
via intake of milk (Lapillonne 2010). Thus, any vitamin D
deficiency in pregnant ewes could have negative impacts on
the immune system of the ewe and/or lamb. Increasing the
vitamin D concentrations in neonatal lambs at birth may
confer a greater ability to control infection and/or limit
infection-driven inflammation, and, thus, may contribute
Supplementation of ewes with
vitamin D during pregnancy could provide an
effective
means to increase the concentrations of vitamin D in
the ewe and her lamb/s in utero, thereby improving
innate and/or adaptive immunity in the ewe, and
innate and/or passive immunity in the lamb.
What does it do?
& ACCURATE
Vitamin D has been recognised to have several roles in
the regulation of immune function and can enhance innate
antimicrobial immune responses, while dampening excessive
adaptive responses and inflammation to maintain selftolerance
and prevent auto-immunity (Lang et al. 2013). During
pregnancy, vitamin D is thought to enhance innate
antimicrobial
and anti-inflammatory responses within the
placenta and reproductive tissues, which may protect the
fetus from intrauterine infection and subsequent inflammation
(Grayson and Hewison 2011). Maternal transfer of vitamin D
to
the lamb may occur in utero, or, to a lesser degree,
postnatally
via intake of milk (Lapillonne 2010). Thus, any vitamin D
deficiency in pregnant ewes could have negative impacts on
the immune system of the ewe and/or lamb. Increasing the
vitamin D concentrations in neonatal lambs at birth may
confer a greater ability to control infection and/or limit
infection-driven inflammation, and, thus, may contribute
Supplementation of ewes with
vitamin D during pregnancy could provide an
effective
means to increase the concentrations of vitamin D in
the ewe and her lamb/s in utero, thereby improving
innate and/or adaptive immunity in the ewe, and
innate and/or passive immunity in the lamb.
& ACCURATE
Vitamin D has been recognised to have several roles in
the regulation of immune function and can enhance innate
antimicrobial immune responses, while dampening excessive
adaptive responses and inflammation to maintain selftolerance
and prevent auto-immunity (Lang et al. 2013). During
pregnancy, vitamin D is thought to enhance innate
antimicrobial
and anti-inflammatory responses within the
placenta and reproductive tissues, which may protect the
fetus from intrauterine infection and subsequent inflammation
(Grayson and Hewison 2011). Maternal transfer of vitamin D
to
the lamb may occur in utero, or, to a lesser degree,
postnatally
via intake of milk (Lapillonne 2010). Thus, any vitamin D
deficiency in pregnant ewes could have negative impacts on
the immune system of the ewe and/or lamb. Increasing the
vitamin D concentrations in neonatal lambs at birth may
confer a greater ability to control infection and/or limit
infection-driven inflammation, and, thus, may contribute
Supplementation of ewes with
vitamin D during pregnancy could provide an
effective
means to increase the concentrations of vitamin D in
the ewe and her lamb/s in utero, thereby improving
innate and/or adaptive immunity in the ewe, and
innate and/or passive immunity in the lamb.
How about during the period
of interest?
& ACCURATE
Vitamin D has been recognised to have several roles in
the regulation of immune function and can enhance innate
antimicrobial immune responses, while dampening excessive
adaptive responses and inflammation to maintain selftolerance
and prevent auto-immunity (Lang et al. 2013). During
pregnancy, vitamin D is thought to enhance innate
antimicrobial
and anti-inflammatory responses within the
placenta and reproductive tissues, which may protect the
fetus from intrauterine infection and subsequent inflammation
(Grayson and Hewison 2011). Maternal transfer of vitamin D
to
the lamb may occur in utero, or, to a lesser degree,
postnatally
via intake of milk (Lapillonne 2010). Thus, any vitamin D
deficiency in pregnant ewes could have negative impacts on
the immune system of the ewe and/or lamb. Increasing the
vitamin D concentrations in neonatal lambs at birth may
confer a greater ability to control infection and/or limit
infection-driven inflammation, and, thus, may contribute
Supplementation of ewes with
vitamin D during pregnancy could provide an
effective
means to increase the concentrations of vitamin D in
the ewe and her lamb/s in utero, thereby improving
innate and/or adaptive immunity in the ewe, and
innate and/or passive immunity in the lamb.
& ACCURATE
Vitamin D has been recognised to have several roles in
the regulation of immune function and can enhance innate
antimicrobial immune responses, while dampening excessive
adaptive responses and inflammation to maintain selftolerance
and prevent auto-immunity (Lang et al. 2013). During
pregnancy, vitamin D is thought to enhance innate
antimicrobial
and anti-inflammatory responses within the
placenta and reproductive tissues, which may protect the
fetus from intrauterine infection and subsequent inflammation
(Grayson and Hewison 2011). Maternal transfer of vitamin D
to
the lamb may occur in utero, or, to a lesser degree,
postnatally
via intake of milk (Lapillonne 2010). Thus, any vitamin D
deficiency in pregnant ewes could have negative impacts on
the immune system of the ewe and/or lamb. Increasing the
vitamin D concentrations in neonatal lambs at birth may
confer a greater ability to control infection and/or limit
infection-driven inflammation, and, thus, may contribute
Supplementation of ewes with
vitamin D during pregnancy could provide an
effective
means to increase the concentrations of vitamin D in
the ewe and her lamb/s in utero, thereby improving
innate and/or adaptive immunity in the ewe, and
innate and/or passive immunity in the lamb.
How do we get it?
& ACCURATE
Vitamin D has been recognised to have several roles in
the regulation of immune function and can enhance innate
antimicrobial immune responses, while dampening excessive
adaptive responses and inflammation to maintain selftolerance
and prevent auto-immunity (Lang et al. 2013). During
pregnancy, vitamin D is thought to enhance innate
antimicrobial
and anti-inflammatory responses within the
placenta and reproductive tissues, which may protect the
fetus from intrauterine infection and subsequent inflammation
(Grayson and Hewison 2011). Maternal transfer of vitamin D
to
the lamb may occur in utero, or, to a lesser degree,
postnatally
via intake of milk (Lapillonne 2010). Thus, any vitamin D
deficiency in pregnant ewes could have negative impacts on
the immune system of the ewe and/or lamb. Increasing the
vitamin D concentrations in neonatal lambs at birth may
confer a greater ability to control infection and/or limit
infection-driven inflammation, and, thus, may contribute
Supplementation of ewes with
vitamin D during pregnancy could provide an
effective
means to increase the concentrations of vitamin D in
the ewe and her lamb/s in utero, thereby improving
innate and/or adaptive immunity in the ewe, and
innate and/or passive immunity in the lamb.
& ACCURATE
Vitamin D has been recognised to have several roles in
the regulation of immune function and can enhance innate
antimicrobial immune responses, while dampening excessive
adaptive responses and inflammation to maintain selftolerance
and prevent auto-immunity (Lang et al. 2013). During
pregnancy, vitamin D is thought to enhance innate
antimicrobial
and anti-inflammatory responses within the
placenta and reproductive tissues, which may protect the
fetus from intrauterine infection and subsequent inflammation
(Grayson and Hewison 2011). Maternal transfer of vitamin D
to
the lamb may occur in utero, or, to a lesser degree,
postnatally
via intake of milk (Lapillonne 2010). Thus, any vitamin D
deficiency in pregnant ewes could have negative impacts on
the immune system of the ewe and/or lamb. Increasing the
vitamin D concentrations in neonatal lambs at birth may
confer a greater ability to control infection and/or limit
infection-driven inflammation, and, thus, may contribute
Supplementation of ewes with
vitamin D during pregnancy could provide an
effective
means to increase the concentrations of vitamin D in
the ewe and her lamb/s in utero, thereby improving
innate and/or adaptive immunity in the ewe, and
innate and/or passive immunity in the lamb.
What happens if we don’t get
enough of it? (possibly also
vice versa…)
& ACCURATE
Vitamin D has been recognised to have several roles in
the regulation of immune function and can enhance innate
antimicrobial immune responses, while dampening excessive
adaptive responses and inflammation to maintain selftolerance
and prevent auto-immunity (Lang et al. 2013). During
pregnancy, vitamin D is thought to enhance innate
antimicrobial
and anti-inflammatory responses within the
placenta and reproductive tissues, which may protect the
fetus from intrauterine infection and subsequent inflammation
(Grayson and Hewison 2011). Maternal transfer of vitamin D
to
the lamb may occur in utero, or, to a lesser degree,
postnatally
via intake of milk (Lapillonne 2010). Thus, any vitamin D
deficiency in pregnant ewes could have negative impacts on
the immune system of the ewe and/or lamb. Increasing the
vitamin D concentrations in neonatal lambs at birth may
confer a greater ability to control infection and/or limit
infection-driven inflammation, and, thus, may contribute
Supplementation of ewes with
vitamin D during pregnancy could provide an
effective
means to increase the concentrations of vitamin D in
the ewe and her lamb/s in utero, thereby improving
innate and/or adaptive immunity in the ewe, and
innate and/or passive immunity in the lamb.
& ACCURATE
Vitamin D has been recognised to have several roles in
the regulation of immune function and can enhance innate
antimicrobial immune responses, while dampening excessive
adaptive responses and inflammation to maintain selftolerance
and prevent auto-immunity (Lang et al. 2013). During
pregnancy, vitamin D is thought to enhance innate
antimicrobial
and anti-inflammatory responses within the
placenta and reproductive tissues, which may protect the
fetus from intrauterine infection and subsequent inflammation
(Grayson and Hewison 2011). Maternal transfer of vitamin D
to
the lamb may occur in utero, or, to a lesser degree,
postnatally
via intake of milk (Lapillonne 2010). Thus, any vitamin D
deficiency in pregnant ewes could have negative impacts on
the immune system of the ewe and/or lamb. Increasing the
vitamin D concentrations in neonatal lambs at birth may
confer a greater ability to control infection and/or limit
infection-driven inflammation, and, thus, may contribute
Supplementation of ewes with
vitamin D during pregnancy could provide an
effective
means to increase the concentrations of vitamin D in
the ewe and her lamb/s in utero, thereby improving
innate and/or adaptive immunity in the ewe, and
innate and/or passive immunity in the lamb.
Changing the levels could
change what?
& ACCURATE
Vitamin D has been recognised to have several roles in
the regulation of immune function and can enhance innate
antimicrobial immune responses, while dampening excessive
adaptive responses and inflammation to maintain selftolerance
and prevent auto-immunity (Lang et al. 2013). During
pregnancy, vitamin D is thought to enhance innate
antimicrobial
and anti-inflammatory responses within the
placenta and reproductive tissues, which may protect the
fetus from intrauterine infection and subsequent inflammation
(Grayson and Hewison 2011). Maternal transfer of vitamin D
to
the lamb may occur in utero, or, to a lesser degree,
postnatally
via intake of milk (Lapillonne 2010). Thus, any vitamin D
deficiency in pregnant ewes could have negative impacts on
the immune system of the ewe and/or lamb. Increasing the
vitamin D concentrations in neonatal lambs at birth may
confer a greater ability to control infection and/or limit
infection-driven inflammation, and, thus, may contribute
Supplementation of ewes with
vitamin D during pregnancy could provide an
effective
means to increase the concentrations of vitamin D in
the ewe and her lamb/s in utero, thereby improving
innate and/or adaptive immunity in the ewe, and
innate and/or passive immunity in the lamb.
& ACCURATE
Vitamin D has been recognised to have several roles in
the regulation of immune function and can enhance innate
antimicrobial immune responses, while dampening excessive
adaptive responses and inflammation to maintain selftolerance
and prevent auto-immunity (Lang et al. 2013). During
pregnancy, vitamin D is thought to enhance innate
antimicrobial
and anti-inflammatory responses within the
placenta and reproductive tissues, which may protect the
fetus from intrauterine infection and subsequent inflammation
(Grayson and Hewison 2011). Maternal transfer of vitamin D
to
the lamb may occur in utero, or, to a lesser degree,
postnatally
via intake of milk (Lapillonne 2010). Thus, any vitamin D
deficiency in pregnant ewes could have negative impacts on
the immune system of the ewe and/or lamb. Increasing the
vitamin D concentrations in neonatal lambs at birth may
confer a greater ability to control infection and/or limit
infection-driven inflammation, and, thus, may contribute
Supplementation of ewes with
vitamin D during pregnancy could provide an
effective
means to increase the concentrations of vitamin D in
the ewe and her lamb/s in utero, thereby improving
innate and/or adaptive immunity in the ewe, and
innate and/or passive immunity in the lamb.
If we get it right – what are the
outcomes?
BE SPECIFIC & ACCURATE
General comments
• Be specific and accurate
• Non specific versus specific
• What are the similarities, what are the differences
• Rambler is in a really great spot.
• Covered lots of literature
• Can pick and choose which bits stay in
• Can always build on bits which you find out are worthwhile and fit better with your results
• Always easier to edit than it is to write
Using literature
General comments
• Please do not directly cite factsheets, websites or lectures
• Marketing from manufacturers is definitely not citable
• Use more than one piece of supporting evidence
• Get endnote (you have access to a free version – and a tutorial!), and use it
Using literature
The main goal of a feedlot scenario is for livestock to either gain or
maintain weight. To ensure optimal nutrition and growth for all
livestock, the balance between energy and protein must be
adjusted according to their specific requirements and environment
(Agriculture Victoria, 2017; Meat & Livestock Australia, 2010). This
can be achieved by creating mixed rations using a combination of
cereal grains, pulses and roughage (Agriculture Victoria, 2017).
These rations can be in pelleted form, loose mixes, in separate
components or a combination of these (Agriculture Victoria, 2017).
Using literature
The main goal of a feedlot scenario is for livestock to either gain or
maintain weight. To ensure optimal nutrition and growth for all
livestock, the balance between energy and protein must be
adjusted according to their specific requirements and environment
(Agriculture Victoria, 2017; Meat & Livestock Australia, 2010). This
can be achieved by creating mixed rations using a combination of
cereal grains, pulses and roughage (Agriculture Victoria, 2017).
These rations can be in pelleted form, loose mixes, in separate
components or a combination of these (Agriculture Victoria, 2017).
Using literature
The main goal of a feedlot scenario is for livestock to either gain or
maintain weight. To ensure optimal nutrition and growth for all
livestock, the balance between energy and protein must be
adjusted according to their specific requirements and environment
(Agriculture Victoria, 2017; Meat & Livestock Australia, 2010). This
can be achieved by creating mixed rations using a combination of
cereal grains, pulses and roughage (Agriculture Victoria, 2017).
These rations can be in pelleted form, loose mixes, in separate
components or a combination of these (Agriculture Victoria, 2017).
Using literature
• Agriculture Victoria, 2017
• Meat & Livestock Australia, 2010
• Feedlot – gain or maintain liveweight
• Balance between energy and protein specific to requirements
• Create a mixed ration using a combination of cereal grains, pulses and roughage
• Can be pelleted, loose or a mix
Using literature
• Feedlot – gain or maintain liveweight (confinement feeding sheep)
• Confinement feeding systems are being used increasingly in dryland Australia for the finishing of lambs, and for maintenance of
the flock in drought conditions (E. K. Crossley and E. A. Dowling, 2004).
• Balance between energy and protein specific to requirements (energy protein balance lamb feedlot)
• Interaction between protein and energy levels of the diet has also been reported (Ebrahimi et al., 2007).
• Create a TMR using a combination of cereal grains, pulses and roughage (legume cereal lamb feedlot)
• Feeding hay supplemented with peas or low protein oats to crossbred lambs born in the spring (Hodge and Bogdanovic, 1983).
• Feedlotting lambs: A producers guide (Davis, 2003).
• Can be pelleted, loose or a mix (diet component lamb feedlot)
• The Good food guide for sheep: feeding sheep for meat production in the areas of Western Australia (Croker and Watt, 2001).
No branding in intro
(second paragraph)
Optimum sheep feeds are required in sheep feedlots in order to
increase growth of lambs. EasyOne and LambGro are both pelleted
sheep feeds that are produced by MILNE feeds. EasyOne is
advertised as meeting the nutritional requirements for optimum
growth in sheep, as well as having the added advantage of being
able to be fed to sheep from day one (EasyOne, 2020). Conversely,
LambGro contains more protein per feed than EasyOne, yet it is
MILNE feed suggest that an additional roughage is fed to lambs in
the first week to introduce the new feed (LambGro, 2020).
No branding in intro
(second paragraph)
Optimum sheep feeds are required in sheep feedlots in order to
increase growth of lambs. EasyOne and LambGro are both pelleted
sheep feeds that are produced by MILNE feeds. EasyOne is
advertised as meeting the nutritional requirements for optimum
growth in sheep, as well as having the added advantage of being
able to be fed to sheep from day one (EasyOne, 2020). Conversely,
LambGro contains more protein per feed than EasyOne, yet it is
MILNE feed suggest that an additional roughage is fed to lambs in
the first week to introduce the new feed (LambGro, 2020).
No branding in intro
(second paragraph)
Optimum sheep feeds are required in sheep feedlots in order to
increase growth of lambs. EasyOne and LambGro are both pelleted
sheep feeds that are produced by MILNE feeds. EasyOne is
advertised as meeting the nutritional requirements for optimum
growth in sheep, as well as having the added advantage of being
able to be fed to sheep from day one (EasyOne, 2020). Conversely,
LambGro contains more protein per feed than EasyOne, yet it is
MILNE feed suggest that an additional roughage is fed to lambs in
the first week to introduce the new feed (LambGro, 2020).
What literature?
• PEER REVIEWED.
• New references – not sure where you get these 5 from, but every year, ~every paper has Jolly, Santos,
Ebrahimi, Herath, Brand etc!
• Great final report by San Jolly, but go to the source.
• This final report is a literature review, every statement is derived from previous scientific work
• Google them.
• Santos
• Effects of diets etc
• Check citing articles – what’s the new news?
• Check related articles
• May not necessarily contribute to your intro, but could be valuable in discussion.
• Wikipedia (shock! horror!)
• FCR
Using literature
General comments
• Please do not directly cite factsheets, websites or lectures
• Marketing from manufacturers is definitely not citable
• Use more than one piece of supporting evidence
• Get endnote (you have access to a free version – and a tutorial!), and use it
Physical structure
• Title
• Summary/ abstract
• Introduction
• Methods and Materials
• Results
• Discussion
• Acknowledgments
• References
Materials and methods
• The most ‘skimmed’ section of your article.
• Help the reader to read quickly by providing meaningful sub-titles.
• Give your Methods before the Materials.
• Consider carefully whether the information you are including is necessary.
• Where a methodology or technique has been described by someone else
don’t repeat it but use the appropriate reference.
Materials and methods
Check your helpful guide paper!
• Materials and methods
Ethics
• Research site, animals and experimental design
• Animal management and treatments
• Animal measurements and sample collection
• Vitamin D concentration assay
• Whole blood differential cell counts
• Whole blood phagocytosis uptake assay
• Total IgG assay
• Anti tetanus-toxoid antibody assay
• Statistical analysis
• Results
Materials and methods
Check your helpful guide paper!
• Materials and methods
Ethics
• Research site, animals and experimental design
• Animal management and treatments
• Animal measurements and sample collection
• Vitamin D concentration assay
• Whole blood differential cell counts
• Whole blood phagocytosis uptake assay
• Total IgG assay
• Anti tetanus-toxoid antibody assay
• Statistical analysis
• Results
Results
• Check out ADG formula
• Graph sheep 1 – trend
• Spread of data at 30/3/21 – scatter plot
Results
• Apply filter
• Spread of data – LambGro
• Spread of data – EasyOne
• Insert pivot table
• Feed type * paddock
• Maternal grandsire
• Count of EID
• Start weight (19/2/2021) – range?
• Recent weight (30/3/2021) – range?
• ADG – range?!
Stats
Emails saying: “I don’t know what to do”
= enrolled students – (A + B + C – covariance) +/- some error
A – Visits to tutorial on accessing journals = 5
B – Visits to author instructions for APS = 6
C – Visits to example paper WITH NOTES = 4
Points for 2021
• Correlation ≠ causation
• Quite a lot of this in results writing
Points for 2021
• Conclude each paragraph with your own words.
• We revisit this each year, but not apparent in papers…
• Missing out on easy marks – ie there is no reason to get 50% for the
methods section (or the abstract). Or results really.
• Standard error on graphs.
• Scientific notation (so many decimals!).
Points for 2021
• Get the easy marks!
• Get the feedback on the intro!
• There are seriously easy marks in some sections – check the marking
guide.
• Discussion is the hardest section – worth 35% – so capitalise on the other
sections.
Points for 2021
• Abstracts
• 5 easy marks.
• 1 sentence for each heading: why, how, major results (inc. numbers),
major conclusions.
• Methods
• Ethics/stats – written for you.
• Don’t include them = don’t get the marks.

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