# Sufficiently large coverage error research paper

1) A recent study of breast cancer revealed that 13% of the women in the sample used antibiotics more than 500 days in their lifetime. Further, 79% of these “heavy antibiotics users” developed breast cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, one in twelve women will develop breast cancer at some time in her life. Of the numbers mentioned, which are parameters?

A. 79% and 500 days
B. 13% and 79%
C. 79% and one in twelve
D. 13% and one in twelve

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## 2) A sufficiently large coverage error will result in which of the following?

A. Statistics about the actual population rather than the target population
B. Non-response bias
C. Inability to perform inferential statistics
D. Probability sampling

## 3) When every member of a population has the chance of being selected based on the probability, or frequency, of its representation in that population, you are using which type of sampling?

A. Quota sample
B. Census sample
C. Convenience sample
D. Random sample

## 4) Which of the following statements is NOT true?

A. Estimating parameters is an important aspect of descriptive statistics.
B. Scientific progress consists of continual refinement of theories through hypothesis testing.
C. A statistical test may be significant yet have no practical importance.
D. Statistics is the science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, interpreting, and presenting data.

## 5) Which of the following is an example of statistical inference?

A. Calculating the mean age of patients discharged from hospitals in New York State in 1997.
B. Counting the number of patients who file malpractice suits after being discharged from hospitals in New York State.
C. Calculating the amount of fly spray needed for your orchard next season.
D. Calculating the mean number of fruit trees damaged by Mediterranean fruit flies in California last year.

## 6) Which one of the following is NOT part of the 5 step hypothesis testing procedure?

A. Determine the level of significance desired.
B. State the null and the alternate hypotheses.
C. Determine the cost of the research.
D. Choose the appropriate statistical test.

7) The manipulation of the independent variable is known as the ________.

A. randomization
B. treatment
C. experimental test
D. validity

## 8) Name the item that is NOT a recognized survey guideline.

A. ability to find friendly survey respondents
B. pilot or beta test
C. quality control

## 9) Which of the following is NOT a basic step in conducting a survey?

A. Secure financing for the survey
B. Create a research design
C. Develop a budget
D. State the goals

## 10) Which of the following is NOT a potential source of survey error?

A. Measurement error
B. Standard error or Systemic error
C. Interviewer error
D. Coverage error

## 11) A statistical researcher must be concerned about which of the following ethical issues?

A. Protection of privacy
B. Conceal financial support
C. Inhumane treatment of animals
D. Monetary compensation

## 12) Which of the following would NOT be considered and potential pitfall for a researcher?

A. Unconscious bias on the part of the researcher
B. Attaching a low level of importance to outliers in a large population
C. Assuming causality based on observations
D. Making conclusions about a large population from a small sample size

## 13) Which of the following is NOT an ethical concern for the statistical researcher?

A. Informed consent
B. Use of sound methodology
C. Monetary compensation or Conceal financial support or Inhumane treatment of animals
D. Protection of confidentiality

14) A study of the scores on an in plant course in management principles and the years of service of the employees enrolled in the course yielded the following statistics: Test Scores: mean=100 variance = 225 Years of Service: mean=5 variance = 81 Of test scores and years of service, which measure has the greater dispersion?

A. The short-run effects of those changes are always more beneficial to society than are the long-run effects.
B. Years of service
C. It is impossible to tell.
D. Test scores

A. 75
B. 80
C. 70
D. 85

A. 196.78
B. 33.85
C. 729.00
D. 14.03

## 17) Which measurement uses absolute values?

A. harmonic scale
B. ordinal scale
C. interval scale
D. ratio correct

A. Nominal
B. Ordinal
C. Likert
D. Ratio

A. interval
B. ordinal
C. ratio
D. nominal

## 20) Which of the following cannot generate a Poisson distribution?

A. The number of defects in a new automobile
B. The number of customers arriving at an ATM in a minute
C. The number of goals in the World Cup soccer game
D. The number of people at a movie theatre on Friday evening

## 21) Which of the following is a characteristic of every binomial distribution?

A. Each outcome is mutually exclusive.
B. The outcome of a trial depends on the number of trials.
C. The probability of success increases from trial to trial.
D. Each outcome is dependent on the previous outcome.

## 22)The local police department must write, on average, 5 tickets a day to keep department revenues at budgeted levels. Suppose the number of tickets written per day follows a Poisson distribution with a mean of 5.5 tickets per day. Interpret the value of the mean.

A. If we sampled all days, the arithmetic average or expected number of tickets written would be 5.5 tickets per day.
B. The mean cannot be interpreted.
C. Half of the days have less than 5.5 tickets written and half of the days have more than 5.5 tickets written
D. The number of tickets written most often is 5.5 tickets per day

A. p = 0.3
B. (1- p) = 0.1.
C. p = 0.4
D. p = 0.5

## 24) Trudy Jones recently completed her certification examination and learned that her z-score was –2.5. The examining board also informed her that a failure to pass would be all scores that were 1 or more standard deviations below the mean and that those with scores higher than 2 standard deviations above the mean would receive a special commendation award. Trudy can, therefore, conclude that she

A. passed the exam and will receive a special commendation award
B. passed the exam, but no commendation award is forthcoming
C. needs more data to determine if she passed the exam
D. failed the exam

A. .85
B. .43
C. .65
D. .95

## 26) For a sample size of 1, the sampling distribution of the mean will be normally distributed

A. only if the population values are larger than 30.
B. only if the population is normally distributed.
C. only if the shape of the population is positively skewed.
D. regardless of the shape of the population.

## 27)  A random variable follows the student’s t distribution. The probability that it will be positive is

A. less than 0.50.
B. 0
C. 0.05
D. 1

## 28)   The use of the student’s t distribution requires which of the following assumptions?

A. The population is normal
B. The sample is drawn from a positively skewed distribution
C. The population variance is known
D. The sample size is greater than 30

## 29)  Ceteris paribus, which is narrower, a 95% confidence interval with n=100 or a 99% confidence interval with n=30?

A. They are the same width.
B. Need the margin of error to tell
C. The 99% confidence interval
D. The 95% confidence interval

30)  A study of 200 insomniacs paid for by the Serta Mattress Company found that the average insomniac counted 350 sheep before falling asleep, with a standard deviation of 120. An insomniac is a person who has difficulty falling asleep. Some useful numbers might be: =NORMSINV(0.89) 1.2265 =NORMSINV(0.945) 1.5982 =TINV(0.89,199) 0.1385 =TINV(0.11,199) 1.6053 =TINV(0.055,199) 1.9302 Out of the 200 insomniacs, 98 reported regularly watching The Late Show with David Letterman before they began to count sheep. Calculate the margin of error for a 78% confidence interval of the true proportion of insomniacs who regularly watch David Letterman before counting sheep.

A. 0.136
B. 0.164
C. 0.056
D. 0.043

31) Summary statistics computed from two independent samples are as follows: n1 = 50, x1 = 175, s1 = 18.5, n2 = 42, x2 = 158, and s2 = 32.4. Construct a 95% confidence interval estimate for the difference between the means of two normally distributed populations, where the unknown population variances are assumed to not be equal. The upper confidence limit is

A. 24.911.
B. 5.788.
C. 28.212.
D. 19.123.

## 32)  In statistical process control, a Type I error occurs if we decide that the process is

A. under control when it is under control.
B. out of control when it is out of control.
C. out of control when it is under control.
D. under control when it is out of control.

## 33) To tell if the standard deviation of a process has changed, the control charts used are

A. R and S charts.
B. x bar and p charts.
C. p and R charts.
D. S and x bar charts.

## 34) When the results of a process are either defective or acceptable, the charts used for SPC are called

A. control charts for attributes.
B. control charts for variables.
C. control charts for in control process.
D. control charts for out of control process.

## 35) A poll is planned to determine what proportion of all students favor an increase in fees to support a new track and field stadium. A questionnaire will be published and the first 1000 completed questionnaires will be analyzed. Which of the following errors will be associated with the sample?

A. Sampling errors and errors due to selection bias
B. Sampling errors only
C. Errors due to interviewer bias and selection bias
D. Only non-sampling errors

## 36)  Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of an ideal statistician?

A.   Technically current (e.g. software)
B.   Can deal with imperfect information
C.   Communicates well (both written and oral)

## 37)  A __________ can be defined as a logically conjectured relationship between two or more variables expressed in the form of a testable statement.

A.   research design
B.   theoretical framework
C.   research problem
D.   hypothesis

## 38)  Which of these is NOT an acceptable type of survey question?

B.   ranking questions
C.   pictograms
D.   Likert scale

A.    ˜84%
B.    ˜16%
C.    ˜68%
D.    ˜18

A.   2.5
B.   1.4
C.   2.0
D.   4.6

## 41)  The Information Commons in the main library has 150 personal computers. The probability that any one of them will require repair on a given day is 0.02. To find the probability that exactly 25 of the computers will require repair, one would use what type of probability distribution?

A.    Hypergeometric distribution
B.    Normal distribution
C.    Poisson distribution
D.    Binomial distributio

A.   \$1.34
B.   \$2.42
C.   \$2.60
D.   \$6.69

A.   .15
B.   .30
C.   .50
D.   .45

## 44)  The expected value of the sampling distribution of the sample mean equals the population mean

A.    for all populations.
B.    when the population size N > 30.
C.    when the population is symmetric.
D.    when the population is normally distributed

## 45)  A random variable follows the student’s t distribution. The probability that it will be positive is

A.   0
B.   0.05
C.    less than 0.50.
D.   1

A.   19.353
B.   6.097
C.   17.331
D.   17.110

## 47)  When no point lies outside the control limits of a chart, we conclude that variation in the process is

A.    due to common cause and there is not enough evidence to infer that the process is out of control.
B.    due to special causes and there is enough evidence to infer that the process is under control.
C.    due to common cause and there is enough evidence to infer that the process is out of control.
D.    due to special causes and there is not enough evidence to infer that the process is out of control.

## 48)  When a change has occurred in the mean of the process distribution, the result is referred to as

A.    a trend.
B.    instability.
C.    a cycle.
D.    a level shift.

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