Types of Birth defects-
Birth defects can be categorized into two types- Structural and Functional defects.
Structural defect includes malformations in the structure or appearances of the body. They can be seen by observing the child. Common structural defect includes cleft lip. In cleft lip, the lips of the child have a cleft that affects the vocal capacity of the child. Functional birth defects include the problems related to the function of the body of the child like Ptau Syndrome. Though the structural defects lead to the physical deformities in the child body but the functional defects can cause structural, mental as well as metabolic problems which hampers the normal growth of a childâ€™s personality.
Causes of the Birth Defects
Many times, the causes regarding the birth defects are known but in some cases, the defects cannot be traced for the reason which caused the defect. The known causes which result in the birth defects can be categorized into 3 types-
Genetic- the genetic causes include the changes or abnormalities in the genes or chromosomes of the individual. Sometimes, the cells of the body have an extra chromosome as in Down Syndrome also called trisomy. The child with Down syndrome has a Mongolian face and retarded physical and mental growth. Whereas sometimes the body lacks a chromosome and has one chromosome missing in their cells which prevents the body from functioning properly like in Turner Syndrome. Many times the defect is caused by the change or missing or adding of a single gene even. The function related to that gene is then hampered and causes defects eg. sickle cell anemia. In sickle cell anemia, due to change in just one nucleotide pair, the gene defectively produces sickle-shaped RBCs which gets degenerated easily and causing anemia in the individual.
Lack of overexposure of certain nutrition- Many birth defects are also caused by the deficiency of a particular nutrient during foetal development. Lack of folic acid during the pregnancy causes the neural tube defect in the babies. This is the reason that the pregnant ladies are medicated with certain supplements like folic acid and iron calcium, etc. Defects also occur by exposure to certain drugs or chemicals during pregnancy. Sometimes, they could not have any direct effect but can aid in the reasons causing the defects. Overuse of alcohol also causes fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.
Infection during pregnancy- some defects of birth are also caused by certain infections during pregnancy. Eg. infections of zika virus cause very severe brain defects in a child. Other infections can include the chickenpox and rubella virus during pregnancy. However, nowadays people get vaccinized properly to avoid these types of defects by the infections.
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