Folate or vitamin B is an essential nutrient. Consumption of vitamin B prevents congenital disabilities such as defects in the neural tube and abnormalities of the central nervous system.
Fortified cereals, green leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, dried beans, and peas provide folic acid.
Consumption of the required amount of protein during pregnancy maintains the weight of the fetus.
The protein needs for pregnant women are maximum during the early (11 â€“ 20 weeks) and late (31- 38 weeks) gestational period.
Calcium is necessary for the bones and teeth development in the fetus and the maintenance of cardiovascular and neuromuscular systems.
Dairy products contain calcium in addition to kale and broccoli.
Iron requirements double during pregnancy. Pregnancy-related anemia is a common occurrence in developing or underdeveloped countries.
Red meat, poultry, fish, green leafy vegetables, and beans provide iron.
Effects of Overnutrition and Undernutrition in Fertility
Malnutrition occurs due to the lack of sufficient nutrients and psychological or eating disorders like anorexia nervosa and bulimia. On the other hand, over-nutrition leads to obesity.
Undernutrition affects menstrual health. It leads to Amenorrhoea, as menses terminate if there is a 10%â€“15% decline in body weight.
These disorders affect hormone production and cause oligo anovulation. Thus, 66% of women with anorexia and bulimia are infertile.
Anorexia and bulimia increase the risk of spontaneous abortions, premature delivery, cesarean delivery, postpartum depression, post-natal complications, sperm motility, and count.
Obesity can lead to hyperandrogenemia and anovulation.
In addition, obesity reduces pregnancy rates, and increases the rates of miscarriage, pregnancy complications, affects ovaries, endometrium, and hormone balance.
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