Milk has a very high nutritional value of protein as it consists of all the nine essential amino acids required by the human body. In addition, milk proteins are more easily digestible as compared to any other protein form. Milk proteins divide into four categories: whey protein, casein protein, milk fat-globule membrane protein, and other minor proteins. The most abundant carbohydrate found in milk is lactose. In addition, milk also contains oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates. Lactose imparts the sweet taste associated with milk. Fats in milk are mainly saturated and monounsaturated. It also contains a tiny amount of cholesterol, linoleic acid, and trans fat. Milk has different carbohydrates, protein, and fat ratios depending upon the type of milk. In one glass of whole cow milk, fat counts for 7.9 grams (g), protein counts for 7.7 g, and carbohydrates account for 11.7 g. Fat content is highest in whole milk. In one glass of low-fat milk, fat, protein, and carbohydrates account for 4.8g, 8.1g, and 12.2g respectively. Fat content is lowest in skimmed milk. Fat consists of 0.2 g in a glass of milk.
Vitamins in milk
Vitamins are essential components for proper growth and development of the body. However, the human body is unable to synthesize vitamins by itself. Hence, intake of vitamins is essential for the human body. Vitamin A, D, E, and K are some fat-soluble vitamins that are present in milk. Water-soluble vitamins are heat and temperature liable, therefore, they cannot be stored in the human body. It needs constant intake. Milk is one of the great sources of water-soluble vitamins, and Vitamin B complex and vitamin C are present in milk.
Vitamin A is rich in milk and is found in high amounts. Vitamin A, which is also known as retinol is present in the form of beta carotene in milk. Cows get beta carotene from the grass and fodder. The yellow color of cow milk is due to beta carotene. However, buffalo milk is white due to the conversation of beta carotene in buffalo.
Vitamin B1, also known as thiamine, is present in pyrophosphate form. It helps in carbohydrate metabolism reaction in the form of a catalyst. Vitamin B2 or riboflavin is the most abundant vitamin present in milk. The yellow-green fluorescent color of milk is due to riboflavin. Riboflavin is a sun-sensitive compound, due to which milk is packed in dark-colored and thick papers. Vitamin B3, or niacin, is present in milk in nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide and nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-phosphate.
Another vitamin present in milk is vitamin K. Vitamin K is responsible for the clotting of blood. In milk, it is present as Mel Quinone and phylloquinone.
Finally, vitamin A consists of a significant portion of fat-soluble vitamins in milk. In 100g of milk, vitamin A ranges from 20 to 21 g.
Micro-nutrients in milk
Along with all the macronutrients and vitamins, milk also contains several other elements. Milk is fortified with calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chlorine, iron, copper, and zinc. Iron, Copper, and Zinc are oligo-elements present in milk. Milk is a complete form, as it also supplies riboflavin and pantothenic acid. Water accounts for 87.5% of milk. Milk contains salts like chlorine, phosphorus, and citrate. The presence of these elements influences the rate of milk coagulation and contains trace elements. Some of these micronutrients come from the feed intake by the lactating mammal. However, milking utensils and equipment are sources of copper, iron, nickel, and zinc. Calcium accounts for 125 milligrams (mg) per 100 g of milk. Magnesium ranges from 11mg to 12mg per 100 g of milk. In addition, 44mg sodium is present per 100 g of milk. 150 mg of potassium is present per 100 g of milk.
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