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The role of drug price negotiation

1.Paper Urgency :


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2.type of homework: dissertation


Introducing HTA in China: The role of drug price negotiation

4.Subject Area: Health economy

5.Paper Style(APA,HARVARD,MLT:


6.Number of Words:

Add 4000 words based on my paper

7.Number of Reference:



The article written by the sample essay in the compressed package is SCOPE LITERATURE REVIEW, and the specific requirements are in my compressed package. The paper folder contains my thesis | the teacher’s sample essay and the literature I collected.

The following sections need to be written for a complete framework (scope literature analysis )

1.2 Research Question:

Introducing HTA in China: What is known from the existing literature about the drug price negotiation?

1.3 Research objectives

1. To summarize current academic findings on drug pricing negotiation in China, with regards to its context, policy, mechanism, current practice. The comparison with conventional drug access would be conducted. The aim is to mapping research papers and policy documents that concern drug pricing negotiation.

2. To explore the role of HTA in drug pricing negotiation and summarize the findings of challenges and opportunities.

3. To identify research gaps in the existing literature with the role of HTA guiding scientific drug pricing negotiation.

While the main focus is the scope analysis of drug pricing negotiation in China, the whole picture of pharmaceutical policy regards to drug market approval, reimbursement and pricing would be discussed within the context. They are intimately affect in the access and affordability of new medications.

The drug pricing negotiation is determined for inclusion in the National Reimbursement Drug List (NRDL)in China. Although pharmaceutical procurement by governments, hospitals, and other organizations is relevant to pricing, the topic is extensively covered elsewhere and would not be addressed in this dissertation.

Theoretical framework

Pharmaceutical Pricing Policy

The affordable prices are designated by WHO as a determinant of access to medicines – together with rational selection and use, sustainable financing, and reliable health and supply systems. Initiatives to stimulate availability and access through manufacturing innovations, procurement mechanisms, or supply chain improvements require management of pricing to have sustainable impact. The past ten years have seen the introduction of several initiatives at both global and regional levels to support countries in managing pharmaceutical prices. Many countries are still failing to implement the policy and programme changes needed to improve access to affordable medicines.

The guideline was developed to assess and manage drug pricing policy by the WHO Department of Essential Medicines and Health Products under the oversight of the WHO Guideline Review Committee. For assessing policy planning and implementation under the WHO guidelines on pharmaceutical pricing policies, following four aspects should be evaluated.

  • Context: use a pharmaceutical pricing policies that should be selected based on the objective, context and health system that tailed the context.
  • Mechanism: transparent pricing policies, processes, evaluation and decisions.
  • Legislative framework: governance and administrative structures, supported by technical capacity
  • Outcome: the policies should be monitored, their influence on prices but also their effect on other outcomes such as out-of-pocket payments and availability of essential medicines.
  • Support with other pharmaceutical policies: include supply and demand side policy, e.g. Market approval, Market reimbursement and regulatory on monitoring.

Using this framework will facilitate to answer the overall research question and achieve dissertation objectives. The dissertation will follow the theoretical framework of WHO on assessing and understand the pharmaceutical pricing policy. The context, mechanism, legislative framework/governance and impact with regards to the drug negotiation would be analyzed. Relating to the use of HTA in the drug pricing negotiation, the technical capacity regards to technical capacity, data, infrastructure and methodological consideration would be searched and analyzed.

  • Methodology


2.1 Methodological framework

I used literature review (SYTEMATIC REVIEW or SCOPE), I don’t think I can do SYSTEM REVIEW but I can do SCOPE, the following is the method the teacher gave me, and then the sample essay is systematic review, what must be included

Please refer to the “Teacher’s Article” in my compressed material + the link on SCOPE REVIEW CHAPTER 11 written by the teacher. The method used is not PICO but PCC https://wiki.jbi.global/display/MANUAL/Chapter+8%3…



Drug pricing negotiation incorporating HTA in China is a novel mechanism for drug pricing and negotiation in China since 2017. This dissertation chooses the scope literature review, whose purpose is suitable to conduct investigation on a relatively unexplored research. Unlike other reviews that tend to address relatively precise questions, such as a systematic review of the effectiveness of an intervention assessed using a predefined set of outcomes. while there are few year on practicing this novel mechanism in China, the dissertation undertake with the objective of providing existing evidence, clarification on key concepts and propose gaps in the research knowledge with regards to drug pricing negotiation and HTA.

The framework for conducting the dissertation study is underpinned by the

clear guidance regarding the reason of scoping reviews, how to conduct scoping reviews and the steps involved in the scoping review process (Arksey and Malley2005; Peters et al, 2020 ).

Search Strategy

The search strategy involved the use of specific search terms based on key themes identified and included a combination of key words (Table 1). Three main areas from the research question were identified A manual search of grey literature such as policy papers, governmental publications, and websites was also performed to obtain the information that was not available in the articles.

A scoping review will have a broader “scope” with correspondingly less restrictive inclusion criteria. The following question based upon the PCC (Population, Concept and Context; see Section 11.2) elements of the inclusion criteria may be posed (Kao et al. 2017a):

Must have this flow chart

PRISMA diagram of search strategy and studies identified for inclusion

There must be at least 8 detailed INCLUSIONs. The more the better

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