18. (08.06 LC) Which of the following leads to a less resilient ecosystem? (4 points) Reduced species richness Increased relative abundance of species Increased keystone species Reduced invasive species All changes saved 19. (08.06 MC) In an intertidal community where the sea star, Pisaster ochraceus, feeds on mussels, Mytilus californianus, scientists removed the sea star to study the effect on species richness. Once the sea star was removed, the species richness of the community declined due to the mussels eliminating most of the invertebrates and algae. Which of the following describes the role of the sea star? (4 points) The sea star is a foundation species that decreased the diversity of the community by having the largest biomass. The sea star is a foundation species that exerted strong control over the community by limiting the population of the mussels. The sea star is a keystone species that maintained the diversity of the community by limiting the abundance of the mussels. The sea star is a keystone species that exerted strong control over the community due to high abundance in population. 20. (08.07 MC) How do mutations contribute to the changes in a population’s interactions with the environment? (4 points) Mutations create more variation, allowing for more stability in the population during environmental pressures. Mutations skew the phenotype of the population into one direction to eliminate the possibility of speciation. The reduction of genetic variation from mutations ensures that populations will not change when the environment changes. Mutations are not random but favored and directed from environmental pressures. 21. (08.07 MC) Which of the following is a likely explanation for why invasive species take over communities into which they have been introduced? (4 points) Invasive species are less efficient than native species in competing for limited environmental resources. Invasive species are not held in check by the predators and agents of disease that affect native species. Invasive species reproduce at higher reproductive rates when compared to rates of native species. Invasive species that were formerly isolated thrive when they are faced with competitive species. 22. (08.07 LC) Which factor will mostly likely decrease biodiversity? (4 points) Complex population interactions Introduced species Increase energy availability All changes saved Narrower niches 5. (08.02 MC) How would an increase in precipitation most likely affect organisms in a terrestrial ecosystem?
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