Cognition and Attitude formation:
The cognitive aspects in human beings are directly associated with attitude formation, and the major cognitive aspect is belief. The belief system of an individual acts as the foundation of his/her attitude. A person develops beliefs by observing, reading, writing, listening, through religion and culture and mainly by interacting with the people around. For example; a person who grew being taught that having sex before marriage is a sin are more likely to develop a dislike towards people who did sex before marriage. Here the attitude is formed from the belief they developed through their culture, religion or through the interaction from people around.
In a different situation where a person reads an article of Sleep Research Society Foundation (SRSF) stating caffeine consumption after dinner can make a person stay awake whole night and disturb the sleep, then the person will logically interpret that caffeine intake can stimulate your brain and thus ruin your sleep. Here the attitude is developed by the logical reasoning.
Attitude Formation toward Familiar and Unfamiliar Attitude Objects:
Most of the time attitudes are developed from the past experiences. For example, if an individual wallet is pick-pocketed from a general class of a train, he/she is more likely to believe that travelling in general compartments is unsafe since poor people travel in general class. Here the person may not travel in the general class again in the future. This happens because this experience will be saved in their memory and they look for more facts and evidences to confirm their assumption. This results in developing a strong unshakeable attitude. On the other hand, there are situations where people develop attitude towards an unfamiliar event (not in their previous experience). In such situation the person seeks for the other relevant related information and somehow creates an attitude on the spot in order to manage the situation. Hence, in a realistic context, people will have been exposed (unconsciously or otherwise) to some features around the unfamiliar attitude object and can infer meaning from existing knowledge about related familiar attitude objects. In such case new attitude is formed by associating the related information despite having no cognitive elaboration on new object or situation.
Learning theories and attitude formation
Attitude formation is well explained by the theories of learning, namely classical conditioning, operant conditioning and social learning theory. According to classical conditioning, attitude is formed by associating good or bad characteristics to the object or event. For example, working out in a gym is good because it brings fitness and a sense of self care. Here the person associated positive features to the event. On the other hand people associate negative characteristics towards working out in a gym, for example working out in a gym forces in consuming artificial protein and that affects your body badly. Operant conditioning states that attitude is formed by the reinforcements (punishment and reward). The consequences of an object or event lead to forming a positive or negative attitude. In simple terms events end up having a positive outcome leads to develop positive attitude and negative outcomes in developing negative attitude. For example, people invested money in a stock market and made profit out of it will develop positive attitude towards stock market, whereas people lost money by investing in stock market develops negative attitude. Attitude formation is explained by social learning theory as the positive and negative opinions and actions of others towards an object or event directly leads the person to develop the same or opposite attitude. A simple example can be racism and caste discrimination, people often develops attitude towards minorities according to what they seen and heard from their elders while they were young.
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