tocratic style is nested in the assumption that employees, if allowed to function
autonomously, cannot or will not contribute to school effectiveness (Hanson, 2003)..
Principals embracing this belief restrict teacher decision making..even in core technical
areas such asallowingthem to determine-homework requirements. Principals exhibiting
a democratic style are guided by two opposing beliefs: stakeholders, including school
employees, have a fundamental right to participate in important decisions; and shared
decision making is generally more effective than autocratic decision making-in. terms
of both decision -qualiry and political, acceptance (Kowalski et aL, 2008). Delegative
principals-believe that employees should be given free reign; they intervene only when,
problems or their supervisors force them to do so. Figure 4.2 illustrate.s differences
among these three-leadership styles.
Prom.an mfluence.perspective, principal behavior is commonly described as being
either transactional or transformationaL Transactional behavior stems from the belief
that most persons are self-centered and do things only when they are apt to ‘benefit or
suffer if they refuse (Burns, 1978). Sergiovanni (2001) describes transactional behavior
as a political quid pro quo: “The wants and needs of followers and the wants and needs of
the leader are traded and a bargain isstruck” (p. 136).-=Intransactions involving a principal
and an.employee, each party is usually aware of e-ach other’s motives (Leithwood &
Duke, 1999). A principal, for example, may convince a teacher to serve on a textbook
adoption committee by providing travel funds -so she can attend a national reading
conference. Coercion also can be used in transactions. For example, a principal may
threaten topunish -the teacher (e.g., recommend that-she be involuntarily transferred to
another school) if she refuses to serve ona textbook adoption committee.
Transformational behavior, by comparison, appeals topsychological needs for esteem,
autonomy and self-actualization (Sergiovanni, 2001) and to moral values such as liberty,
justice, equality, peace, and humanitarianism (Yuki,f989}. This style is predicated on the
belief that, by being inspirational, administrators elevate motivation and morality across
the organization (Burns, t978)-and induce employees to transcend their self-interest for
the sake of the organization (Bass, 1985). Transformational behavior is also outcomeoriented.Constructing a shared vision, setting goals and priorities, providing support,
modeling effective behavior (Leithweod, Jantzi, & Steinbach, 1999), and remaining
-passionate about the vision (Bennis & N anus, 1985) are recognized characteristics.
Often, .leadership styles ace viewed as bein_gmutually exclusive; that is, a principal is
tho-ught to-be eithertransactional or transformational. In fact, these are distinct behaviors.
Effective leaders use a combination of both styles, but they skillfully determine when
each is appropriate (Bass, 1985). In the context of school reform, transformational styles
have .becorne more essentiaL Figure 4.3 provides a comparison of transactional and
Autocratic (or authoritarian) style
Participative (or democratic) style
Delegative (or laissez faire) style
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