Upper respiratory tract
The tract is lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium cells. The upper tract starts with the nasal cavity, i.e. the two nostrils which open anteriorly on the face. Its lateral wall possesses the three tiny bone projections called the conchae, which enhances the surface area of the nasal cavity and disrupt the laminar flow of the air, making it slow and humid. Another pathway for air is the oral cavity, i.e. mouth. The air-filled spaces in the nasal cavity are known as sinuses that link the nasal cavity through several openings and also assist in humidifying and warming the inhaled air. The mucous membrane is involved in trapping the harmful particles, i.e. dust or bacteria.
After travelling through the nasal cavity and the sinuses, the inhaled air enters into the pharynx, which is a funnel-shaped organ. It is subdivided into nasopharynx, oropharynx and the laryngopharynx.
After travelling through the laryngopharynx, the air enters the last part of the upper respiratory tract, i.e. the superior portion of the larynx. It is a complex hollow structure that lies anterior to the oesophagus. The larynx is supported by the cartilaginous skeleton which is associated with the membranes, ligaments and the muscles. The opening of the larynx is closed through the epiglottis, which prevents the entry of food and fluids from entering into the lower respiratory tract.
Lower respiratory tract
It includes the inferior part of the larynx, tracheobronchial tree as well as lungs. It lies below the vocal cords and the cricoids cartilage. The tracheobronchial tree transmits the gases into the lungs. It constitutes the trachea and the intrapulmonary airways. The trachea bisects at the sternum into the left and the right bronchi in each lung. The right bronchi enter the hilum of the right lung, whereas the left bronchi enter the hilum of the left lung. The main bronchi divide into several bronchioles.
Lungs are a pair of spongy organs which is present in the thoracic cavity inside the rib cage. The right lung is slightly larger than the left lung. The hilum of a lung is composed of bronchus, pulmonary artery, two pulmonary veins, bronchial vessels, pulmonary autonomic plexus, lymph nodes and vessels.
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