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COSO Framework for Warehouse Management
Internal Control Evaluation: Enabling Smart
Information Systems Department,
School of Information Systems,
Bina Nusantara University,
Jakarta 11480, Indonesia
Computer Science Department, BINUS
Graduate Program â€“ Doctor of
Computer Science, Bina Nusantara
University, Jakarta, Indonesia 11480
Computer Science Department, BINUS
Graduate Program â€“ Doctor of
Computer Science, Bina Nusantara
University, Jakarta, Indonesia 11480
Faculty of Computer Science,
Depok 16424, Indonesia
Suhono Harso Supangkat
Sekolah Teknik Elektro dan
Institut Teknologi Bandung,
Abstractâ€” There are many ways for the company to
improve its performance, one of them is optimizing the
internal control of the company’s activities. Internal
control is intended to evaluate company activities and
operations. This study took a case study at PT. XYZ
related to the evaluation of internal controls in
warehouse management using the COSO framework
approach. From 5 elements and 17 Principle, study
found, there are 2 principles that have not been applied
in PT. XYZ; enforced accountability and control over
technology. The recommendation given is system
improvement as intended the inventory system to be
more accurate and reliable to enable smart warehouse
systems inside organizations.
Keywords: internal control, COSO framework, warehouse
There are many ways for the company to improve its
performance, one of them is optimizing the internal control
of the company’s activities and also implementation of the
new system to increase efficiency and effectiveness in all
business process activities . Internal control is a process
undertaken by company management to assist the
achievement of operations, reporting and in accordance with
the compliance . The internal optimization is needed
because it describes the overall rules and procedures used by
management to improve management effectiveness in the
business and identify lack of internal control in the business
processes that it can make the organization vulnerable and
possible risks occurs, eventually all these risks can have an
impact on a company’s financial performance .
In warehouse management, internal controls devoted to
optimizing the functions, including the process of finished
goods inventory, and it useful to organize the distribution
process to the market. According to Rita Makumbi (2013)
 the function of the warehouse management is one of a
service that can help the company’s operational functions
run smoothly as a store of raw material, unfinished goods,
until stock the finished goods or inventory. One of the
problem in warehouse management is high production of
manufacture, company must pay attention to the process
from the beginning of production, to the process of goods
delivery, and inventory calculations.
One of famous approach for warehouse management
control is using COSO framework. COSO framework is one
of tools to maintain the effectiveness and efficiency of
inventory process in organizations . COSO framework
also known as integrated framework that can help company
to:(1) warehouse operation process more effective and
efficient; (2) accountable and reliable of inventory stock
calculation; (3) compliances with government law and
This research took case study from PT. XYZ as one of
company who implemented the warehouse management.
Based on observing in PT. XYZ, we found that company
still difficulty to balance the production and inventory
storage in warehouse which impact to lack of inventory
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
Early definition of internal control is the plan of
organization to coordinate methods and measure all the
element in process business safe, accurate, reliable,
encourage the prescribed managerial policies . Another
definition of internal control is philosophy of risk alignment,
risk management, ethics, policies, resources, tasks and
responsibilities according to organizational capacity to
manage risk .
In warehousing planning and control, company produces
various product, company needs good control over its
inventory which two main objectives such as (1) warehouse
inventory planning and control; (2) reliable inventory report
to support financial statements 
Related to COSO framework, basic concepts of internal
control are:(a) internal control is an integrated process and a
tool that can be used to achieve organization goals; (b)
Internal control is not only limited to policies and
procedures but should include all levels within the
organization; (c) Internal control can only provide a
reasonable guarantee, not an absolute guarantee, because
there are limitations that can obstruct the absoluteness of the
internal control itself; (d) Internal Control will ultimately
result in achievement of goals in categories of financial
statements, compliance, operational activities .
Using COSO framework for evaluating the internal
control helps company to calculate the probability of risk
which can occur adversely . However COSO can
maintain and support the company to maintain risk which
known can give positive feedback nor negative .
COSO framework is consist of five: (1) Control
environment; (2) Risk assessment; (3) Control activities; (4)
Information & Communication; (5) Monitoring activities
Figure 1. The COSO Cube 
Table 1. Component of Internal Control in COSO 
With COSO framework approach this research starting
with process business analysis as preliminary measurement
and basic analysis in PT. XYZ then continue with internal
control evaluation as follow:
Figure 2. The Research Flow for Warehouse Management
Evaluation in PT. XYZ
For detail performed as follows:
1) Meeting related to explaining flow of evaluation
2) Conducting interviews with stakeholders such as IS
team leader operations, IS analyst, supervisor factory
logistics, team leader factory logistics, warehouse staff,
forklift drivers, internal control, and IPG (Information
Protection & Governance) to observe and also learn
detail about how the business process run, systems
used and also the company’s internal control
3) Documents checking related to the process of the
finished goods inventory.
4) Doing directly observations in order to learn and
understand more clearly about the working procedures
associated with the process of finished goods
IV. ANALYSIS AND RESULT
Based on the results of research and interviews as
part of internal control evaluation, here are the results:
Based on the result above, total of 17 principles from
COSO framework known as 2 principles is in red area for
medium and high risk area, 6 principles is in yellow area
which â€œnot fully adaptedâ€ for medium and high risk area
and green area for total 9 principles from low and high
For the red area, we conducted deeply investigation
as high level evaluation for give the best
recommendation. We found incorrect procedure during
the process of inventory cycle in warehouse, due to goods
receipt in warehouse is not loaded to the shelf directly
and it put to wrong shelf. The impact, a lot of expired
inventory due to incorrect process in goods issue. The
inventory are stored in a multilevel shelf. During the
good issue and shipment for delivery, it was taken
Another issued for the red area is control activities for
control over technology. PT. XYZ not only use
warehouse management but also already used one of the
systems like robot machine systems for put the inventory
during the goods receipt. The process starts when
shipping case sent by the conveyor and the systems will
create into one pallet by robot machine then the next step
is data will be stored in the robot database, but once in
while systems went down, there is no back up so the
process will be stopped or create manually. The effect for
this case is lack of control for goods receipt.
After we found the fact findings about internal control
evaluation for warehouse management in PT. XYZ, the
recommendation is as follow:
â€¢ Conducting customization through warehouse
management system at PT. XYZ.
â€¢ Change business processes related to system
The recommendation above expected, will support and
improved the process in PT. XYZ such as:(1) Eliminate the
manual process; (2) Provide reliable information about
location of inventory stored and retrieved; (3) Trackable
inventory; (4) Provide real-time information related to
inventory in the warehouse.
The recommendation of design architecture for
warehouse management customization is using Three-Tier
Architecture. While the warehouse management will
integrated with robot machine and the application will store
into one single application server. This design purpose with
benefit: (1) optimized the server for storage, data process
and retrieving database; (2) Reduce data duplication .
Figure 3. Three-Tier Architecture 
The business process changes purposed as follow:
Robot Machine Systems Warehouse Management Systems
Interface Process Integration Mobile Scanner (Goods Issue) Inventory Barcode Create Automatic Inventory Stock Calculation Recommendation for Goods Issue Movement (First In First Out Method Adoption)
Figure 4. System Design
System design from figure 4, describes about additional
interface process integration as bridging between warehouse
management systems and robot machine systems which all
data from the systems will save into single database.
Otherwise the process will improve since the inventory
movement will follow with FEFO (First Expired First Out),
like picture describe in figure 5.
Table 2. Coso Matrix Performance in PT. XYZ
In the figure 5 shown the inventory movement while
systems automatically will scan and check the criteria. If the
criteria of the product proper the next step systems will
input into inventory systems and robot systems will take the
product into the pallet specifically based on criteria and
create delivery notes, afterwards the inventory staff will put
into shelf storing. For the next process, PT. XYZ move the
process of inventory into FEFO System (First Expired First
Out): the systems will create the delivery note (inventory
selection based on expired date) and show which the
inventory should out and help the inventory staff find the
COSO framework not only providing better internal
control but also measurement of compliance risk due to
reviewing the organization operational as well. COSO
framework can support the risk mitigation, which can give
recommendation and also solution to the company.
Through 5 elements and 17 principles, it will help
company reach the objective nor goal of effectiveness and
efficiency company operation. Another opinion COSO
framework is likely common audit that enables controls not
the business operations but also all personnel inside of
 COSO Framework. (2016). Retrieved from
 Diane J. Janvrin, E. A. (2012). The Updated COSO
Internal Controlâ€” Integrated Framework:
Recommendations and Opportunities for Future
Research. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS,
 J. Stephen McNally, C. (2013, June 2013). The 2013
COSO Framework & SOX Compliance : ONE
APPROACH TO AN EFFECTIVE TRANSITION.
 Jokipii, A. (2009). Determinants and consequences of
internal control in firms: a contingency theory based
analysis. Springer Science-Business Media, 115-144
 Kambalyal, C. (2010). Three Tier Architecture.
 Makumbi, R. (2013). Introduction to Warehousing
Principles and Practices. Lambert Academic
Figure 5 â€“ The Process of Inventory Movement
 Martin, K., Sanders, E., & Scalan, G. (2014). The
Potential Impact of COSO Internal Control Integrated
Framework Revision on Internal Audit Structured
SOX Work Program . Elsivier – Research in
 Mary B. Curtis, F. H. (2000). The components of a
comprehensive framework of internal control. The
CPA Journal, 64-66.
 Miles E.A. Everson, S. E. (2013). Internal Control â€”
Integrated Framework. NY: Committee of Sponsoring
Organizations of the Treadway Commission.
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standards and procedures . University of Mississippi
Library. Accounting Collection.
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Indonesia . Jakarta: Salemba Empat.
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Management within the Context of COSOâ€™s Enterprise
Risk Management Framework. Journal of Business
Administration Research, 15-28, Vol. 2, No. 1.
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Assessment Program Using COSO’s Guidance on
Monitoring. New York: The CPA Journal.
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